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Web 2.0可能很危险…

by 雅各布·尼尔森December 17,二千零七

总结:阿贾克斯丰富的互联网用户界面,混搭communities,用户生成的内容往往会增加比其价值更高的复杂性。他们还转移了设计资源,再次证明(被manbetx官方网站手机版炒作的)很少是最有利可图的。


…dangerous for your profits,就是这样。If you focus on over-hyped technology developments,你冒着转移资源的风险high-ROI manbetx官方网站手机版design issues这对你的用户和你的利润都很重要。

与一些老技术不同(特别是,FlashPDF),Web 2.0的想法不是固有地badfor users.Theycanbe highly effective;we sometimes see examples of usability-enhancing Web 2.0 manbetx官方网站手机版designs in our studies.但更常见的是发现Web2.0的想法伤害users or simply不要紧满足用户的核心需求。虽然后一种情况似乎是无辜的,不相关的网站“增强”会减少利润,因为它们表明没有将注意力集中在那些简单的设计问题上,而这些问题实际上会增加销售和销售线索。manbetx官方网站手机版

虽然对被滥用的“Web2.0”术语没有单一的定义,我将介绍四种通常被视为其定义元素的趋势:

  • "Rich" Internet Applications (RIA)
  • 社区特色,social networks,and user-generated content
  • 混搭(使用其他站点的服务作为开发平台)
  • 广告作为主要或唯一的商业模式

AJAX and "Rich" Internet UI: Too Much Complexity

毫无疑问,交互的页面视图模型提供了一个可伸缩的用户界面。But this also means that it's asimple用户界面。When all they can do is click a link to get a new page,users know how to operate the UI.People are in control of their own user experience and thus focus on your content.

“丰富的”互联网用户界面突出了更灵活的图形用户界面设计选项,我们从1984年开始在个人计算中就享受到了。manbetx官方网站手机版Such interfaces can work well,especially foractual applications这提供了真正的功能,因此需要一个完整的图形用户界面。But if you're just manbetx官方网站手机版designing a网站,更高级的用户界面迷惑用户不仅仅是他们的帮助。为什么?因为用户少接触网站than with apps.(许多应用程序ephemeral appsthat also have low user engagement.)

Take the most famous example of rich UI: AJAX,which lets manbetx官方网站手机版designers update part of a page,rather than taking users to an entirely new page.因为需要的数据下载更少,these smaller updates are typically faster,decreasing response times.

只有傻瓜才会否认response timeand download speeds for the Web user experience.After all,we've known since 1968 that speedy interfaces feel better and support flow.

So yes,faster is better.但只有当用户继续理解发生的事情时。We recently tested about 100 e-commerce sites and found many problems withAJAX shopping carts.特别地,用户经常忽略的适度变化,such as when they added something to the cart and it updated only a small area in a corner of the screen.

It's deadly for e-commerce sites when users can't operate the shopping cart,所以通常最好坚持简单的购物车设计manbetx官方网站手机版that everybody understands.

要获得所需的响应时间,spend your money on bigger servers and better hosting providers.Andstick fewer gadgets on each page这些天,响应速度慢往往是由太多的复杂因素造成的,占用服务器时间的manbetx官方网站手机版动态设计元素。

As illustrated in a sidebar,安AJAX feature can work在一个网站上。And our testing did find one usable AJAX shopping cart.一如既往,真正的问题不是技术,但是可用性。If you use technology right,it can help sales.Still,这个risk is typically too highwith new technology because best practices haven't jelled yet.You不能只是模仿你在网上看到的设计manbetx官方网站手机版-他们很可能是坏的,因为他们被喝了最新最酷的技术的极客一起黑客。而且,悲哀地,“最新和最酷”通常被翻译成“未经检验和无法使用”,从而造成金钱损失。

社区和用户生成的内容:用户太少

User-generated content can be a great supplement to your own content.最著名的例子是亚马逊的书评,从1996年开始(不完全是“2.0.”)。社区,which were the main recommendation in the 1997 book 增益 ,are also an old idea.

社区特性在内部网中特别有用,和许多Intranet manbetx官方网站手机版Design Annual胜利者提供。The reasons communities work better on intranets also explains why they're often less useful on the open Internet:

  • 一个公司的员工是一个真正的社区,有着至关重要的shared interest:业务成功。
  • 员工经过预先审查:他们已经被雇佣,因此可能有最低质量水平.In contrast,在网络上,大多数人都是疯子,不值得倾听。
  • 尽管一些内部网社区——比如内部分类广告——旨在减轻工作场所的负担,most intranet communities aretightly focused公司项目。讨论停留在主题上,而不是在地图上到处闲逛。
  • 内部网用户是accountablefor their postings and care about their reputation among colleagues and bosses.As a result,postings aim to be productive instead of destructive or flaming.
  • Small groups of people who know each other are less susceptible to社会闲散,因此,更多的用户为企业内部网社区功能做出贡献。In contrast,Internet communities suffer from参与不平等,where most users never contribute and the most active 1% of people dominate the discussions.

Realistically,mostbusiness tasks are too boring支持社区功能。The fact that the city Sanitation Department will pick up Christmas trees sometime after December 25 isn't likely to inspire a longing to discuss shared experiences on the department's site.Users will visit the site to find the pick-up dates and rules.尽管如此,the Christmas tree pick-up page is an example of how政府网站可以为纳税人带来巨大的投资回报:如果操作正确,这一页将使这个城市免于接听没完没了的电话——每个电话的费用为10美元或更多。Often,如此无聊,工作之马的东西就是金钱所在。

Mashups: Co-Branded Confusion

One of the defining ideas of "Web as platform" is that it lets developers merge the features of different sites into a single service.如果你是生意人,这样做很危险,有两个原因:

  • 联合品牌混淆users,谁会发现更容易理解一个站点的简单模型=一个公司。当其他公司在亚马逊上销售时,用户会感到困惑。同样地,our studies ofinvestor-relations sitesfound that individual investors were confused when a corporate site's IR area linked to a third-party site for quarterly reports and the like.
  • 有效地拥有部分站点在另一家公司的控制下means that you're at that company's mercy if they decide to change the terms of service.For example,外部供应商可能会决定从竞争对手那里投放广告。Not material you want to promote to your hot prospects.

最后,一个“混合”的服务永远不会有像manbetx官方网站手机版专为您的需求而设计.In测试商店查找器和其他定位器,we found that the most usable maps were custom drawn to highlight a specific store and included surrounding landmarks,推荐停车设施,and information on how to best access the location using public transportation.A general mapping service doesn't know your customers' needs and thus can't draw the map that will bring in the most customers.

Of course,if you're a small company,borrowing features from an outside service can help you add functionality to your site.但如果你很高大,the profits from an optimal user experience usually beat the cost of its creation.

Advertising-Funded Business Models: Bubble 2.0

与他们唯一的商业模式一样追求相同广告收入的公司数量无疑表明我们正处于泡沫2.0的顶峰。It would be much more sustainable if companies aimed to create services that users valued enough to pay for.

Right now,considerable advertising money is sloshing through the Web because mostmarketing managers remain clueless关于它是如何工作的。They think that because search advertisements generate lots of business,其他的网络广告也必须同样有效。多么谬论-由于不了解基本的Web用户体验而产生的。People go to search engines when they're explicitly looking for a place to do business.This is why搜索引擎利润from sucking up the work of content sites (where users exhibit strongbanner blindness).

Marketing managers won't remain clueless forever.迟早他们会发现网络广告几乎没有投资回报。Only two forms of Web ads actually work:搜索广告and classified ads (such as eBay and real estate listings).第三类互联网广告might工作是视频广告,because video is a linear media form (in contrast to nonlinear website navigation).At this point,我们没有足够的用户对互联网视频的研究可以肯定地说。

Hyped Websites: Unrepresentative for Business Sites

In 1997,我说非典型的例子是不好的指标of what you should do with your site.In2006,I said this again,使用实例那一年被广泛炒作。悲哀地,许多互联网管理者继续犯这个错误并要求他们的团队模仿他们所读新闻故事中强调的方法。所以,我第三次这么说:

  • 如果你是一个主流商业网站(包括政府和非盈利网站)。您的用户体验需求非常不同than those of the few hot sites that attract all the attention.

作为一个例子,一个较小的电子商务网站应该not emulate Amazon.com's manbetx官方网站手机版design.虽然他们做了很多正确的事情,there are also many ways in which Amazon deviates from themainstream guidelines for e-commerce user experience.他们可以(和可能should)因为他们独特的位置(你没有)而偏离。

By definition,any获得广泛新闻报道的网站不具有代表性for the vast majority of sites.媒体只报道“令人兴奋”的故事,而不是日常事务。

The most-hyped site right now,Facebook,是互联网上的“钢铁大厨”.这个铁艺厨师competition makes for great TV,但这与成功经营一家餐馆无关。After all,厨师们通常不会在用餐前不久就被分配一种“神秘的配料”,因为他们必须在一顿多菜的饭菜中加入这种配料。Broccoli ice cream?Not if you want to make money and bring the diners back.

像Iron Chef一样,Facebook有很多戏剧性的新闻报道,但它的大部分特征对于B2B网站那说,is trying to sell forklift trucks to 50-year-old warehouse managers.Instead of adding Facebook-like features that let users "bite" other users and turn them into zombies,the B2B site would get more sales by offering clear prices,good product photos,详细规格,令人信服的白皮书,容易航行的information architecture,和一个email newsletter.

调整一些Web 2.0功能,但专注于核心服务

正如我注意到的,有很多理由不去关注Web2.0的炒作。Still,Web2.0有一些有益于主流网站的好主意。问题是不同的网站需要differentWeb 2.0功能的子集。

As an extremely rough guideline,here's the percentage of Web 2.0 infusion that might benefit different types of user experience:

  • Informational/Marketing网站(无论是公司网站,government,或非营利性):10%
  • E-commerce网站:20%
  • 媒体网站:30%
  • 企业内部网:40%
  • 应用:50%

Applications score so high because users perform actions repeatedly and thus truly benefit from rich UI possibilities.In contrast,主流网站有few repeated actionsthat justify the added complexity of a full GUI's shortcuts.

For website usability,问题不在于一个特定的操作是1秒还是10秒;people typically perform each operation only once or twice.The problem for websites is the 5–10 minutes users lose when they do something wrong because the site is too complicated.(在经历了这样的经历之后,他们通常会离开——你就失去了生意。)简单比效率更重要为一次性行动。

Take拖放:正确使用时,it can expedite application interactions.But on a corporate site,the lack of perceived affordances can cause users to overlook important options.(并且,当然,when usedwrong,花哨的交互技术也注定了应用的失败,which is why it's important to follow应用程序可用性指南如果这是你的游戏。The fact that a technique is "2.0" is more likely to harm than help your users if implemented with poor usability.)

The bottom line?While a modest 2.0 infusion can be beneficial,高级功能很少是良好用户体验或盈利网站的最重要贡献者。If you get caught up in the hype,you divert attention and resources from the simpler things that really matter.这个机会成本is the real reason to take it easy on Web 2.0.

在把钱花在“2.0”功能上之前,make sure that you haveall“1.0”要求不断完善。在网上的149784002个网站中,也许少数人能提出这个主张。大多数网站甚至不使用customers' terminology in headlines and page titles-如果你想要一个快速行动项目通过更好的搜索引擎优化排名来提高网站盈利能力,more clickthroughs,更好地了解您的服务,rewriting the first two words of your微含量将在任何一天击败任何技术。