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万博官网manbetx下载用户体验研究小抄

通过 Susan Farrellon February 12,2017

Summary:用户研究可以在设计周期的任何时候进行。manbetx官方网站手机版这个方法和活动列表可以帮助您决定何时使用。


用户体验研究方法非常擅长生成数据和洞察,while ongoing activities help get the right things done.与研发并肩,ongoing 万博官网manbetx下载UX activities can make everyone's efforts more effective and valuable.At every stage in the manbetx官方网站手机版design process,different 万博官网manbetx下载UX methods can keep product-development efforts on the right track,in agreement with true user needs and not imaginary ones.

我们得到最多的问题之一是,“我应该何时对我的项目进行用户调查?”有三种不同的答案:

  • Do user research at whatever stage you're inright now.The earlier the research,调查结果对您的产品影响越大,and by definition,the earliest you can do something on your current project (absent a time machine) is today.
  • 做用户调查all the stages.As we show below,there's something useful to learn in every single stage of any reasonable project plan,and each research step will increase the value of your product by more than the cost of the research.
  • 做大多数用户调查early in the project(when it'll have the most impact),但是,为项目后期的少量补充研究保留一些预算。This advice applies in the common case that you can't get budget for all the research steps that would be useful.

下表描述了在不同项目阶段可用的UX方法和活动。万博官网manbetx下载

A manbetx官方网站手机版design cycle often has phases corresponding to discovery,探索,验证,倾听这需要设计研究,manbetx官方网站手机版用户研究,以及数据收集活动。万博官网manbetx下载UX researchers use both methods and ongoing activities to enhance usability and user experience,as discussed in detail below.
该图列出了潜在的UX研究方法和活动,这些方法和活动可以在万博官网manbetx下载项目通过设计阶段时完成。manbetx官方网站手机版Think of this as a menu of recommended options.Your process will vary and may include only a few things on this list during each cycle.The most-frequently used methods are shown in bold.(莎拉·吉本斯的图片)

Each project is different,因此,阶段并不总是整齐地划分。一个周期的结束是下一个周期的开始。

重要的是不要严格地执行一系列活动,but to start somewhere and learn more and more as you go along.

Top 万博官网manbetx下载UX Research Methods
发现 现场研究
• Diary study
•用户访谈
利益相关者访谈
需求和约束收集
探索 •竞争分析
•设manbetx官方网站手机版计审查
•人物塑造
• Task analysis
•行程图
• Prototype feedback & testing (clickable or paper prototypes)
•编写用户故事
• Card sorting
试验 • Qualitative usability testing (in-person or remote)
• Benchmark testing
• Accessibility evaluation
• Survey
• Analytics review
•搜索日志分析
•可用性缺陷审查
•常见问题(FAQ)回顾

When deciding where to start or what to focus on first,use some of these top 万博官网manbetx下载UX methods.有些方法可能比其他方法更合适,根据时间限制,系统成熟度,type of product or service,以及当前的首要问题。在每个产品周期中使用不同或交替的方法是一个好主意,因为它们针对不同的目标和洞察类型。下表显示了用户体验从业者在我们的用户体验职业调查中报告参与这些方万博官网manbetx下载法的频率。

顶级的用户体验研万博官网manbetx下载究活动,实践者说他们至少每一两年使用一次,从最频繁到最少:任务分析,需求收集,个人可用性研究,行程图,etc.,manbetx官方网站手机版design review,分析审查,可点击原型测试,编写用户故事,persona building,surveys,实地研究/用户访谈,纸张原型测试,无障碍评估,竞争分析,remote usability study,test instructions / help,卡片分类,analyze search logs,diary studies
用户体验专业人员使用最频繁的方法,万博官网manbetx下载从我们 免费用户体万博官网manbetx下载验职业调查报告 .Percentages refer to the proportion of respondents who said they use each method at least every year or two.

如果你只能one活动和目标是改进现有系统,do qualitative (think-aloud) usability testing,which is themost effective method to improve usability.如果您无法使用用户进行测试,尽可能多地分析用户数据。Data (obtained,例如,从呼叫日志中,搜索,or analytics) is not a great substitute for people,however,because data usually tells you什么,但你经常需要知道为什么?.因此,使用您的数据提出的问题继续推动可用性测试。

发现

The discovery stage is when you try to illuminate what you don't know and better understand what people need.在制作新产品或新功能之前进行发现活动尤为重要,所以你可以找出来做这个项目是否有意义.

本阶段的一个重要目标是验证和放弃假设,and then bring the data and insights to the team.Ideally this research should be done before effort is wasted on building the wrong things or on building things for the wrong people,但当你使用现有的产品或服务时,它也可以用来回到正轨。

Good things to do during discovery:

  • 行为实地研究访谈用户: Go where the users are,手表,ask,and listen.观察与系统交互的上下文中的人,或者解决您试图为其提供解决方案的问题。
  • Rundiary studies了解用户的信息需求和行为。
  • 与利益相关者面谈,以收集和理解业务需求和约束。
  • 采访销售人员,支持,以及培训人员。他们从用户那里听到的最常见的问题是什么?What are the worst problems people have?是什么让人们生气?
  • 听销售和支持电话。人们问什么?他们对理解有什么问题?How do the sales and support staff explain and help?用户和员工之间的词汇不匹配是什么?
  • Do竞争性测试.Find the strengths and weaknesses in your competitors' products.Discover what users like best.

探索

探索方法是理解问题空间和设计范围,适当地满足用户需求。manbetx官方网站手机版

  • 将功能与竞争对手进行比较。
  • 进行设manbetx官方网站手机版计评审。
  • Use research to生成用户角色写用户故事。
  • Analyze user tasks to find ways to save people time and effort.
  • Show stakeholders the用户旅程以及在这一过程中失去客户的风险领域。Decide together what an ideal user journey would look like.
  • 探索设计可能性manbetx官方网站手机版通过想象许多不同的方法,brainstorming,并测试最佳创意,以确定最佳设计保留组件。manbetx官方网站手机版
  • Obtain feedback on early-stage task flows by walking through manbetx官方网站手机版designs with stakeholders and subject-matter experts.Ask for written reactions and questions (silent brainstorming),避免群体思维,让那些可能不会在群体中说话的人告诉你他们关心什么。
  • 通过测试迭代设计manbetx官方网站手机版纸面原型with target users,然后测试交互式原型通过观察人们使用它们。不要收集意见。相反,注意设计如何帮助人们完成任务manbetx官方网站手机版并避免错误。让人们告诉你问题所在,然后重新设计和manbetx官方网站手机版测试。
  • 使用卡片分类要了解人们如何对您的信息进行分组,帮助通知您的导航和信息组织方案。

试验

测试和验证方法用于在开发期间及以后检查设计,manbetx官方网站手机版以确保系统对使用它们的人有效。

  • Do定性可用性测试.Test early and oftenwith a diverse range of people,一个人一组。进行无障碍评估,以确保普遍通行。
  • 让人们在使用系统的过程中自我报告他们的交互和任何有趣的事件,for example withdiary studies.
  • 审核培训课程并注意主题,questions people ask,并给出答案。Test instructions and help systems.
  • 与用户组交谈。
  • Staffsocial-media在线与用户交谈。Monitor social media for kudos and complaints.
  • Analyze user-forum posts.User forums are sources for important questions to address and answers that solve problems.把学习带回设计和开发团队。manbetx官方网站手机版
  • 做基准测试:如果你正在计划一个重大的重新设计或衡量改进,manbetx官方网站手机版test to determine time on task,task completion,and error rates of your current system,所以你可以测量一段时间的进度。

在整个研究和设计周期中倾听,以帮助理解现有问题并寻找新问题。manbetx官方网站手机版Analyze gathered data and monitor incoming information for patterns and trends.

  • 调查客户和潜在用户。
  • Monitor分析学metricsto discover trends and anomalies and to gauge your progress.
  • Analyze search queries: What do people look for and what do they call it?Search logs are often overlooked,但它们包含重要信息。
  • 便于发送评论,错误报告,还有问题。Analyze incoming feedback channels periodically for top usability issues and trouble areas.寻找人们找不到的线索,他们的误解,以及任何意想不到的影响。
  • 收集常见问题努力解决他们所代表的问题。
  • Run booths at conferences that your customers and users attend so that they can volunteer information and talk with you directly.
  • Give talks and demos: capture questions and concerns.

活动

发现

Ongoing and strategic activities can help you get ahead of problems and make systemic improvements.

  • 寻找盟友.实现设计改进需要协调的努力。manbetx官方网站手机版你需要合作者和拥护者。
  • 与专家交谈.从别人的成功和错误中吸取教训。Get advice from people with more experience.
  • 遵循道德准则.UXPA万博官网manbetx下载职业行为规范是一个很好的起点。
  • Involve stakeholders.不要只是征求意见;把人们带到船上并做出贡献,even in small ways.Share your findings,邀请他们在研究期间观察并做笔记。
  • 搜索数据源.做个UX侦万博官网manbetx下载探。Who has the information you need,and how can you gather it?
  • Determine 万博官网manbetx下载UX metrics.Find ways to measure how well the system is working for its users.

探索

  • FollowTog's principles of interaction manbetx官方网站手机版design.
  • 使用循证设计指南manbetx官方网站手机版,尤其是当你不能进行自己的研究时。可用性启发法是要遵循的高层次原则。
  • manbetx官方网站手机版通用接入设计.可达性在质量保证期间不能粘在末端或测试。访问正成为一项法律要求,并提供专家帮助。Accessibility improvements make systems easier for everyone.
  • Give users control.提供人们需要的控制。选择,但不是无限选择。
  • Prevent errors.每当发生错误,考虑如何通过设计变更消除它。manbetx官方网站手机版可能出现的用户错误通常是系统设计错误。manbetx官方网站手机版Prevent errors by understanding how they occur and manbetx官方网站手机版design to lessen their impact.
  • 改进错误消息.For remaining errors,don't just report system state.从用户的角度说出发生的事情,并用用户容易理解的术语解释要做什么。
  • 提供有用的默认值.Be prescriptive with the default settings,因为很多人希望你为他们做出艰难的选择。Allow users to change the ones they might need or want to change.
  • 检查不一致的地方.相似的工作对学习能力很重要。People tend to interpret differences as meaningful,so make use of that in your manbetx官方网站手机版design intentionally rather than introducing arbitrary differences.坚持principle of least astonishment.而是满足期望。
  • Map features to needs.User research can be tied to features to show where requirements come from.Such a mapping can help preserve manbetx官方网站手机版design rationale for the next round or the next team.
  • When manbetx官方网站手机版designing software,ensure that installation and updating is easy.Make installation quick and unobtrusive.允许用户控制更新(如果他们愿意)。
  • 在设计设备manbetx官方网站手机版时,plan for repair and recycling.Sustainability and reuse are more important than ever.manbetx官方网站手机版保护设计。
  • Avoid waste.Reduce and eliminate nonessential packaging and disposable parts.避免浪费人们的时间,also.流线型。
  • Consider system usability in different cultural contexts.You are not your user.Plan how to确保您的系统适用于其他国家的人员.Translation is only part of the challenge.
  • 寻找不正当的激励.Perverse incentives lead to negative unintended consequences.How can people game the system or exploit it?How might you be able to address that?Consider how a malicious user might use the system in unintended ways or to harm others.
  • Consider social implications.How will the system be used in groups of people,按人群划分,or against groups of people?Which problems could emerge from that group activity?

试验

  • 保护个人信息.个人信息就像钱。You can spend it unwisely only once.Many want to rob the bank.计划如何随着时间的推移保持个人信息的安全。Avoid collecting information that isn't required,and destroy older data routinely.
  • Keep data safe.限制对研究数据和客户委托给公司的数据的访问。Advocate for encryption of data at rest and secure transport.A data breach is a terrible user experience.
  • 传递好消息和坏消息.It's human nature to be reluctant to tell people what they don't want to hear,但是,用户体验必须提出棘手的问题。万博官网manbetx下载产品的未来,甚至是公司,可能取决于决策者知道你知道或怀疑什么。
  • Track usability over time.Use indicators such as number and types of support issues,可用性测试中的错误率和任务完成,and customer satisfaction ratings,以证明设计改进的有效性。manbetx官方网站手机版
  • Include diverse users.People can be very different culturally and physically.他们还有一系列的能力和语言技能。人物角色不足以防止严重的问题,因此,确保您的测试包括尽可能多的人。
  • Track usability bugs.If usability bugs don't have a place in the bug database,启动您自己的数据库来跟踪重要问题。

  • 关注用户情绪.社交媒体是监控用户问题的好地方,成功,frustrations,以及口碑广告。当竞争对手出现时,social media posts may be the first indication.
  • Reduce the need for training.对于困难的用户界面,培训通常是一种解决方法,而且很贵。使用培训和帮助主题寻找适合设计更改的领域。manbetx官方网站手机版
  • Communicate future directions.Customers and users depend on what they are able to do and what they know how to do with the products and services they use.改变是好事,即使是破坏性的,but surprise changes are often poorly received because they can break things that people are already doing.只要可能,ask,tell,测试用and listen to the customers and users you have.与他们协商,而不仅仅是宣布变更。Discuss major changes early,所以你听到的能帮助你做得更好,他们所听到的可以帮助他们为所需的变化做好准备。
  • 招募人员进行未来的研究和测试.Actively encourage people to join your pool of volunteer testers.Offer incentives for participation and make signing up easy to do via your website,你的时事通讯,and other points of contact.

结论

使用此备忘表为您的项目选择适当的UX方法和活动,并充分利用这些努力。万博官网manbetx下载It's not necessary to do everything on every project,但是,在每次迭代过程中,混合使用各种方法并倾向于一些持续的需求通常是有帮助的。

Related article:When to Use Which User-Experience Research Methods

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