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企业用户体验成熟度:万博官网manbetx下载阶段1 - 4

通过 Jakob NielsenApril 24,2006

简介:随着他们的用户体验万博官网manbetx下载的方法的成熟,通过相同的序列组织通常进展阶段,from initial hostility to widespread reliance on user research.

通常情况下,组织通过一系列阶段随着他们的用户体验过程的发展和成熟。万博官网manbetx下载Because the sequence is fairly universal,you can match your own organization with the following descriptions to see what your next stage is likely to be.


The initial stage is characterized by the slogan,”一个良好的用户是一个死去的用户。”Developers simply不想听到用户或他们的需求;their only goal is to build features and make them work on the computer.In this mindset,humans are irrelevant — they're告诉使用该系统,不管这样做是容易的还是愉快的。

In computing's early days (1945–1965),this was the most cost-effective approach to most projects.Hardware was so expensive that it made sense to subjugate people to the computer's needs.

1965年左右,电脑变得越来越便宜,足够人们使用它们,我们开始看到经济效益从减少培训成本,提高用户生产力。Usability started showing positive ROI in the few companies that used it,but hostility toward usability predominated in most IT shops until the 1980s.


如果你的公司是在敌意阶段,你可以忘记提升用户体验。People have to想要改变之前有任何的机会帮助他们这么做。一旦公司的足够伤害的尼安德特人的态度,管理将准备考虑可用性和进入下一个阶段。


Sooner or later,大多数公司实现简化设计的价值以供人类使用。manbetx官方网站手机版在这一点上,最明显的是(但错误的)方法manbetx官方网站手机版design team to rely on its own intuitionabout what constitutes good usability.

毕竟,the team members are human beings,他们使用电脑和网站。Surely they know whether something is easy使用或不是。The existing team members also have one huge benefit: they're already onboard and participate in every project meeting,where they're not shy about分享他们的设计观点manbetx官方网站手机版

这种方法对于一类作品相当不错,设计问题:开发工具,manbetx官方网站手机版如web服务器,为开发人员或其他极客。开源项目,比如Perl,Lin万博官网manbetx下载ux,and Apache have had great success with developer-centered manbetx官方网站手机版design.但即使是这些项目可以更好和更系统的可用性设计团队之外的人的意见。manbetx官方网站手机版程序员的工作在Apache的勇气有了更深层次的了解比其他技术专家,他们只希望useApache,不攻击它。

项目针对何物观众,这是灾难性的依赖设计团队的理解什么是容易的。manbetx官方网站手机版Anyone working on a project knows much too much about it to represent outside users.


在第二阶段,你有一个巨大的优势:人们关心的可用性。That said,you're still likely to get lip service from high-level executives,谁会做出公告,,”良好的用户体验是一个高优先级””while failing to actually fund usability work.So,while you can't go directly from stage 2 to an elaborate usability process,你可能会发现人们接受用户体验的逻辑。万博官网manbetx下载These people will also show some willingness to move to stage 3 — if you keep pushing.


在这个阶段,组织意识到它不应该依赖的设计团队的个人判断什么是方便客户使用。manbetx官方网站手机版Most manbetx官方网站手机版design decisions will continue to rely on this judgment,however,因为人们倾向于认为他们都是典型的和宇宙的焦点。Thus,尽管设计师知道他们应该manbetx官方网站手机版得到外部数据,他们不努力获取它。


What distinguishes this stage from higher levels is that there's no official recognition of user experience as a discipline,也没有事先批准的预算分配。All 万博官网manbetx下载UX activities and user research are ad hoc and driven by user advocates who want a bit more data to improve the quality of the one thing they're working on at the moment.

原始的,黄鼠狼项目可用性是有效的。(边栏显示了测试两个用户的例子increased the probability of picking the better of two manbetx官方网站手机版designs from 50% to 76%.) Even tiny 万博官网manbetx下载UX efforts can't help but create vast user-experience improvements in a company that hasn't done any usability studies before.The old cliché of"果实”总是在这样的情况下适用。

从第二阶段到第三阶段时,你可以依靠逻辑——也许有点的恭维,让设计团队成员,他们太了解代表平均客户。manbetx官方网站手机版In moving upward from stage 3,however,你必须依赖的结果

当设计一个manbetx官方网站手机版小可用性注射,they get better — hopefully so much better that the results are clear to anybody.The only downside is that really great user experience seems so obvious (after the fact) that management might not recognize how much work was required to simplify the manbetx官方网站手机版design.为了防止被忽视了,保存最初的设计理念,manbetx官方网站手机版像他们看起来笨拙,和之前/之后显示比较文档用户体验的进步。万博官网manbetx下载


也许经理行贿基金资助的一个小的可用性研究得到晋升为主管与一个更大的预算。或者反映副总裁决定将优先在可用性方面的产品质量。Several scenarios can cause a company to invest more in user experience.通常情况下,the primary cause is that some of stage 3's small,临时用户体验项万博官网manbetx下载目引起了上级,相信他们的眼睛,该公司将利润从改善用户体验。

The big difference between stages 3 and 4 is a dedicated budget for 万博官网manbetx下载UX.但是很小,我们的预算已经有点提前预留这意味着万博官网manbetx下载用户体验活动计划以同样的方式与其他质量流程。

Depending on the company's size,UX预算万博官网manbetx下载可能只涉及单个员工的时间的百分比也可能允许几个全职UX专家。In either case,用户体验万博官网manbetx下载人员分散在公司和没有任何系统的过程。但至少他们在他们的工作描述和用户体验和可用性一壶钱之类的招聘测试用户,which costs an average of $171 per user.

在这个阶段,用户体验作为公司主要观点万博官网manbetx下载魔法药水洒稀疏over a user interface to shine it up.可用性的主要方法是用户测试,后总是在开发过程的后期进行用户界面已经至少部分地实现。

这是与推荐的最佳实践,这要求频繁和早期测试中,including the use of纸上原型that teams can test without the sunk cost of a full-scale manbetx官方网站手机版design implementation.The more work that goes into implementing a user interface,管理将越不愿进行架构更改,通常需要在设计第一次接触真正的用户。manbetx官方网站手机版

从第四阶段,even more proof of ROI is needed.从第三阶段到第四阶段,很容易提供可信的结果:你不禁让你第一次做一点戏剧性地改进可用性项目。And,黄鼠狼项目资金,those advances come cheaply.

与一个真正的预算,你需要更大的改善证明增加用户体验的投资。万博官网manbetx下载因为可用性方法惊人的高投资回报率,那些大的改进,但这需要一些时间。你需要多一些成功的故事。You need several fielded products with higher conversion rates,更少的电话支持,better内部网的生产力,为贵公司或其他业务度量是突出的。


Stages 5–8: Next Column


在接下来的列,我将讨论为什么会这样你的公司如何继续提升用户体验的成熟度模型,万博官网manbetx下载覆盖用户体验成熟度万博官网manbetx下载级别5 - 8