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万博官网manbetx下载 Debt: How to Identify, Prioritize, and Resolve

通过 安娜卡蕾2018年11月11日

简介:Like tech debt, 万博官网manbetx下载 debt piles up over time and, if left unaddressed, leads to compounding user problems and costly cleanup effortsAgile teams can modify their processes to track and resolve 万博官网manbetx下载 debt.


Continually prioritizing fast and easy solutions may help us hit release dates in the short term, but over time, repeatedly choosing shortcuts will leave us with mounting experience issues that adversely impact our usersThese issues are known as 万博官网manbetx下载 debt and, if left unaddressed for too long, lead to costly, time-consuming problems that take effort to fix later on.敏捷团队are particularly prone to 万博官网manbetx下载 debt as a result of heightened pressure to regularly ship new features and functionality然而,万博官网manbetx下载 debt can accumulate in any project, regardless of the development methodology employed,太多会导致失去信任,流量和收入In this article, we define 万博官网manbetx下载 debt and show how it can be identified; we also discuss methods for how to prioritize 万博官网manbetx下载-debt issues and resolve them虽然这些方法框架为敏捷环境中,他们可以很容易地用于其他的开发过程。

What Is 万博官网manbetx下载 Debt?

万博官网manbetx下载 debt is similar to its technical counterpart, known as技术(或技术)的债务最初在1992年由Ward Cunningham技术债务是指启动而导致的额外的时间和精力成本更快和更容易的技术解决方案,而不是释放最好的方法It implies that the cost of having to go back and fix problems after launch is always higher than launching ideal solutions in the first place (i.e., the debt is repaid with usurious interest).Like tech debt, 万博官网manbetx下载 debt is often incurred when manbetx官方网站手机版ers and researchers are working under tight timelines or impractical project constraints.Other factors that contribute to 万博官网manbetx下载 debt include:

  • 跳过用户测试
  • 无视品牌标准和风格指南
  • manbetx官方网站手机版 by committee
  • 曲解的产品愿景
  • 收购或合并其他产品
  • 缺乏沟通或文档
  • QA测试不足
  • 遗留代码或延迟重构

Why is it more expensive to fix a 万博官网manbetx下载 problem later, rather than before launch? For many reasons首先,remanbetx官方网站手机版和重新编码消耗许多资源:团队必须refamiliarize细微差别和已经推出了功能的细节,他们花时间调试,然后可能改造软件的其他部分从纯软件开发的角度看,第一次编码的UI开发人员不必变化更容易运输代码But there are also user-experience reasons for the extra cost of 万博官网manbetx下载 debt:

  • 启动一个次优manbetx官方网站手机版影响长期的市场份额,因为很多客户会给你一个尝试然后放弃当manbetx官方网站手机版太困难或不满足他们的需求即使你解决他们的投诉后,用户不会知道,因为他们不会重新取样你的网站或产品一旦他们有一个糟糕的经历。
  • 用户将习惯于坏manbetx官方网站手机版之后,你改变manbetx官方网站手机版,人们将不得不改变自己的习惯和恨你。
  • Changing the manbetx官方网站手机版 back and forth for any particular component of the overall 万博官网manbetx下载 will degrade the feelings of consistency and coherency.
  • 你的失败将永远生活在互联网上因为学习是社会,用户将继续“通知”多年来你的失误的博客,留言板,视频频道,和其他来源,讨论了旧版本这不仅过时的信息是有害的,而不是帮助你的用户,它也会吓跑新前景遇到坏的描述manbetx官方网站手机版和任何尴尬的工作区人发现并公布。

Any 万博官网manbetx下载 debt will incur some of these costsBut the longer the 万博官网manbetx下载 debt remains unpaid, the more these costs will mount (think of “compound interest” as an analogy).

An example of 万博官网manbetx下载 debt can be seen on FedEx’s website in a carousel that appears on the product page for printed postersInitially, the carousel displays four related products; however, clicking on the right arrow to view more related products reveals only one additional item而不是填充内容区域有更多的图片和相关产品的链接,投影机显示空白部分用户寻找邀请或类似的印刷材料可能会变得沮丧,缺乏相关产品在这个旋转木马联邦快递应该添加更多的相关产品旋转木马或更新功能,以适应不同的内容。随着时间的推移,团队很容易忘记这些看似小问题,回到修复它们的可能性减少的压力转移到其它的优先事项。然而,这些问题影响用户,应保持网站的完整性。

旋转木马产品缺少几个项目的联邦快递。
To resolve this example of 万博官网manbetx下载 debt, FedEx should add more related products or update the carousel functionality to accommodate varying amounts of content.

尽管这个词债务is daunting for most people, the metaphor does not imply that 万博官网manbetx下载 debt should be avoided at all costs特别是在敏捷,市场情况下速度和压力来满足发布日期需要节省时间的选择While certain types of 万博官网manbetx下载 debt (such as problems with integration, inconsistencies, and trouble preserving a simple conceptual model that explains and unites the entire user experience) are more likely in Agile, any decisions that will deliberately result in 万博官网manbetx下载 debt should be made carefully and collectively.考虑如果更快进入市场价值的风险负面影响用户感知和修复问题的高成本。When the answer is yes, the resulting 万博官网manbetx下载 debt should be tracked, managed, and, paid back gradually over time so that users don’t notice it and abandon the website or application entirely.

Identifying 万博官网manbetx下载 Debt

万博官网manbetx下载 debt includes any ongoing problems in the experience due to launching a fast, easy, or careless solution that negatively impacts usersWhether it is introduced deliberately or accidentally, it’s important to look for 万博官网manbetx下载 debt in these areas of the experience that are prone to debt buildup:

For example, a press release on Symantec’s investor-relations website contains body copy that is too low contrast to be considered accessibleThough low contrast is not a bug, it is an example of 万博官网manbetx下载 debt that could negatively impact low-vision or color-blind users根据WCAG指南,对比比率之间的文本和背景颜色应该是4.5比1把普通的文本文本颜色和背景之间的对比度颜色这个页面上只有3.2比1因此,过低被认为是可访问的Symantec should have selected a body-copy color that meets accessibility standards and must now remember to go back and fix this issue of 万博官网manbetx下载 debt.

赛门铁克网站上发布文字太轻的可访问性。
To resolve this example of 万博官网manbetx下载 debt, Symantec should select a darker body-copy color that results in a higher contrast ratio to meet accessibility standards.

The best way to uncover 万博官网manbetx下载 debt is by getting real user feedback often and in a各种各样的方式尽管你应该进行用户测试发布前冲刺的特性,进行检测也应该发生至少每月一次,关注流动和的关键用户经常做的现实任务在你的网站或应用程序这种方法将帮助您了解用户体验和识别的整体健康最严重的问题Other user-feedback methodologies that can help you find 万博官网manbetx下载 debt include:

除了用户反馈,建立循环时间与整个产品团队,包括开发人员,检查站点或应用程序的整体健康。Open up the discussion for the rest of the team to bring forward any 万博官网manbetx下载- or tech-debt items that may negatively impact the user experience.产品管理也可以提出关于债务问题发现的领导或其他利益相关者如果可能的话,从共享趋势或模式分析在一起讨论所以团队可以决定如果需要进一步调查确定的债务。

Inconsistencies in the UI can be considered 万博官网manbetx下载 debt, but not always.可以在用户界面中偶尔的轻微差异,适合品牌指导方针和为用户不造成问题For example, during an A/B test, there may be some temporary 万博官网manbetx下载 issues until the team understands which variation is optimal and whether it should be added to amanbetx官方网站手机版系统These types of inconsistencies should not be considered 万博官网manbetx下载 debt since the variations are temporary and intentional(To avoid creating 万博官网manbetx下载 debt as a byproduct of an A/B test, teams should ensure that the winning elements are scaled into the manbetx官方网站手机版 system with full consistency and clear standards for the new patterns or components.)

An example of an informational inconsistency in the UI that does count as 万博官网manbetx下载 debt was observed on Amazonshipping-for-returns页面显示不一致返回物品数量:用户想返回4条裤子,但是页面上的文本阅读返回2项摘要信息说退款小结3项这个矛盾的信息导致用户问题退款金额和导航回到前一页,仔细检查总估计退款是正确的Amazon’s inconsistency is 万博官网manbetx下载 debt and should be addressed to help users move smoothly through the return process.

亚马逊的返回页面显示不一致的数量信息。
用户在亚马逊上遇到矛盾时,不正确的项目数量在执行恢复这种不一致导致他们亚马逊的可信度和准确性的问题This type of issue counts as 万博官网manbetx下载 debt.

When actual 万博官网manbetx下载-debt issues and bugs like these are found, their severity, frequency, and location in the users’ journey should drive the issue valuation and prioritization尽管在以下部分中,我们将讨论如何跟踪,优先考虑,在敏捷开发工作和解决问题过程中,概述的方法和概念可以适应任何开发方法和应用and will help you track, rank, and gradually clean up 万博官网manbetx下载 debt over time.

跟踪和优先考虑的问题

Once 万博官网manbetx下载 debt items are identified, there are a few ways you can track them for prioritization每个方法都有利弊,所以重要的是要选择一个最适合你的团队和组织Common ways in which 万博官网manbetx下载 debt items are tracked include:

  • Adding 万博官网manbetx下载-debt items directly to the backlog for prioritization
  • Capturing 万博官网manbetx下载-debt items in a spreadsheet, then adding them to the backlog

Adding 万博官网manbetx下载-Debt Items Directly to the Backlog

Putting 万博官网manbetx下载 debt items directly into the backlog can work well for teams that have well-organized backlogs with clear severity indicators and prioritization processes然而,对于大型的、复杂的组织处理用户故事and product-backlog items, adding 万博官网manbetx下载 debt directly to the backlog could mean those items get lost or continually deprioritized in favor of new features and functionality一位用户体验专业支持这种方法说:

“We track our 万博官网manbetx下载-debt items using an epic in our backlogDuring backlog grooming, we review the list of technical and 万博官网manbetx下载-debt items, then we collectively prioritize and decide what to tackle in the next two weeks之前我们做这个计划的任何新特性和功能我们可以平衡清理与新功能。”

To make sure that 万博官网manbetx下载 debt gets the attention it deserves each sprint, create a product-backlog item or a label for 万博官网manbetx下载 debt and use the same severity indicators as for other items in the backlog通过这种方式,所有项目可以使用相同的维度评估优先级在梳理和规划。This method will also help teams look back and see how much 万博官网manbetx下载 debt was been paid back within a time period.

What will improve the product experience the most: a new feature or making an existing feature usable? Quite often, the latter choice is best, since a feature that people can’t use might as well not exist因此,修复的东西不适合用户有同样的效果,添加一个新特性,客户真正的得到使用Therefore, 万博官网manbetx下载 problems with existing features could and should often get assigned higher priority than new features此外,特性通常是为了预期利益的实现,这样一个古老的特性可能会比一个新特性本质上更有价值,如果只是旧的功能可以为用户工作。

组织和优先考虑在一个电子表格

For teams with many 万博官网manbetx下载 debt items or complex backlogs, prioritize issues in a spreadsheet before adding them to the backlog该方法将保护团队获得了或忽视长期产品待办事项列表项的列表It will also help the product owner prioritize issues accordingly and add to the backlog only those 万博官网manbetx下载-debt items that make the most sense for the product vision, users, and team workload以下因素将揭示最大的痛点用户的经验和应该被包括在电子表格:

  • 从用户的角度描述问题(它是怎样影响他们吗?)
  • 在经历发生(意识,考虑,转换)
  • 发生的频率(频率发生吗?)
  • Who reported the issue? (user, team, stakeholder)
  • Level of 万博官网manbetx下载 and development effort needed to fix the issue (low, medium, or high)

分数每一期通过分配一个值在体验区,频率,记者,和水平的努力来解决这个问题然后,使用一个优先级矩阵散点图的形式看问题落在用户价值的维度和努力解决This visualization can help you rank issues and communicate progress in cleaning up 万博官网manbetx下载 debt back to利益相关者和领导随着时间的推移。

Severity plot for 万博官网manbetx下载 debt prioritization
Visualizing 万博官网manbetx下载 debt in a scatter plot can help the team organize, understand, and prioritize issues based on user value and level of effort needed to fix the issue before adding them to the backlog.

虽然回去的费用和解决问题永远是高于发射与理想的解决方案, it is still important to weigh all of these factors when prioritizing to avoid wasting even more time, effort, and resources when cleaning up 万博官网manbetx下载 debt一位用户体验专业支持这种方法说:

“We added our 万博官网manbetx下载 debt to the backlog, but it got lost and overlooked amidst all of the other competing priorities通过组织项目在电子表格中第一,产品负责人,带领开发人员和用户体验manbetx官方网站手机版er可以一起进行评估,确定几项添加到未来sprint backlogIt feels more manageable to pay back our 万博官网manbetx下载 and tech debt over time.”

The most important consideration to keep in mind is that 万博官网manbetx下载 debt and technical debt should never be disregarded altogether.许多敏捷组织tend to prioritize tech debt over 万博官网manbetx下载 debt, but focusing on one type of debt over another will only lead to more problems for users and more expensive fixes in the end同样重要的是意识到两种类型的债务往往齐头并进Don't completely abandon 万博官网manbetx下载 debt in favor of addressing tech debt, or vice versa.Prioritize efforts that aim to reduce tech and 万博官网manbetx下载 debt at the same time.更高效,确保你不会挖自己进一步陷入债务通过专注于一种类型而放弃另一个这种方法还可以帮助产品与用户保持完全信任和可信度。

While the high-priority 万博官网manbetx下载 problems should definitely be fixed first, the lower-priority ones should not be abandoned completely随着岁月的流逝,累积层藤壶将放缓甚至最强大的船,和用户体验会感觉越来越低质量的产品,当用户遇到小烦恼的每一步。

Resolving 万博官网manbetx下载 Debt

Paying down 万博官网manbetx下载 debt can feel daunting at first and will take time, but there are a few ways to resolve it while still making overall improvements to your digital products.One approach is to dedicate a specific number of story points to fix 万博官网manbetx下载 debt during each sprint or every other sprint.The number of story points can fluctuate over time depending on the team’s workload, but try to address at least one or two 万博官网manbetx下载-debt items per sprint, preferably more if bandwidth allowsUse easy-to-understand visualizations, evidence from user testing, and clear explanations of what was accomplished in each sprint to help leadership and executives understand the progress made and why it’s important.

Communicate 万博官网manbetx下载 debt payback over time.
Showing progress and communicating the value of resolving 万博官网manbetx下载 debt over time will help leadership and executives understand the importance and positive impact that cleanup has on the user experience.

另一个方法是计划quarterly sprint dedicated to cleaning up tech debt and 万博官网manbetx下载 debt团队应该集体决定清理sprint和关注的领域,最后,给清理干净如果整个sprint不可行,一些团队将休息一天(有时称为奶酪的一天) rather than a full sprint to address as much 万博官网manbetx下载 debt as possible接近决议以这种方式获得利益相关者和领导处理债务经常项目,尤其是可以证明和进步沟通的用户和业务价值生成的。

Conclusion

万博官网manbetx下载 debt isn’t always avoidable but teams can organize and collaborate around how to address it包括所有合适的人尽早讨论早产的风险或偶然的推出和发展节奏在寻找最佳体验工作的元素进行用户测试和常规启发式评估of the experience to ensure new 万博官网manbetx下载-debt issues are found and prioritized利用数据,如分数用于严重策划,使案件为什么在其他某些问题需要解决,并显示进展debt-cleanup努力Acknowledging and formulating a plan for paying 万博官网manbetx下载 debt back over time will help you resolve it, before your users start to notice.

For more information on how to identify, prioritize, and resolve 万博官网manbetx下载 debt, take our full-day training course,Lean 万博官网manbetx下载 and Agile

参考

技术债务维基