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User Experience Career Advice: How to Learn 万博官网manbetx下载UX and Get a Job

by Jakob Nielsen苏珊·法雷尔on 1月12日,二千零一十四

Summary:在上千名用户体验专业人士中,我们发现万博官网manbetx下载工作满意度很高,教育背景差异很大,210 job titles,以及广泛的工作角色和活动。

When we teach用户体验课程,one of the most frequently asked questions is,"how do I get a user experience career?" Obviously,getting some training is a good start in any field.但还有很多。And although some advice can be gained from the myriad of existing careers books,the 万博官网manbetx下载UX field is sufficiently unusual that general-purpose books can't tell you all you need to know.

那么,我们如何才能发现在用户体验领域拥有一个强大的职业生涯——或者甚至学习UX并首先获得一份UX工作需要什么呢?万博官网manbetx下载By turning to our love of empirical data and finding out from people who actually work in the field.

Survey Data

963 user experience professionalscompleted our survey.Additional respondents helped us improve the questionnaire through several rounds of pilot testing,我们还收集了来自47位会议参与者和5位测试人员的书面调查结果。In total,我们的建议是基于1015用户万博官网manbetx下载体验.

Our respondents were divided almost equally between people in the beginning of their career (6 or fewer years in a 万博官网manbetx下载UX-related job) and more experienced staff (7+ years as a UX pro).这一组合给我们提供了一个很好的视角,让我们了解到各种职业。

70%的受访者生活在美国,英国Canada,或者澳大利亚。It is true that these countries are some of the world's most advanced in terms of万博官网manbetx下载UX maturity因此,有不成比例的许多用户体验工作。我们总是希望他们能在任何评估用户体验职业的项目中万博官网manbetx下载得到很好的代表。Even so,来自这四个国家的受访者比例很高,代表了我们的调查工具使用英语这一事实造成的偏见。


Before you read further,让我们回到底线。Is it even worth considering a 万博官网manbetx下载UX career?Yes,according to the people who have one.Respondents rated theircareer satisfaction as 5.4以1-7的比例。Sure,在UX领域,一切都不完美,万博官网manbetx下载but this is still pretty good.Also,满意的反应严重偏向于幸福的结局,17%的人的满分是7分,只有1%的人的满分是1分。


Interestingly,the main causes of dissatisfaction all indicate that the respondents do like the field of user experience in itself,但这还不够:

  • 他们希望得到更多的教育和培训,这样他们才能对自己的技能和角色更有信心。
  • 他们非常喜欢用户体验万博官网manbetx下载,希望做更多的可用性活动,或者更坚定地将工作职责导向用户体验。
  • Their current position or company doesn't support them or 万博官网manbetx下载UX enough,so they probably need a new job.

Extreme Diversity

这项研究最有力的发现是no single defining characteristic of user experience careers.对于我们考虑的每一个要点,我们的回答者提供了多种多样的答案。

这个结论的一个部分例外是人们所研究的产品类型。94% of respondents have worked on websitesand web apps,so this one platform is something most people have in common and which you should expect to know if you want a 万博官网manbetx下载UX job.

但即使是平台也有着极其多样性。67%调查对象中可移动的应用程序,60%on企业应用,和54%论传统desktop software.So there are four different platforms that are common enough that more than half of user experience professionals work on them.But wait,还有:调查对象已经在努力78 different categories of products,从医疗设备到家庭影院和电网系统。所有这些产品都需要可用性,并且所有这些领域都至少雇佣了一些用户体验专业人员。

显然,these percentages sum to much more than 100%.原因是大多数用户体验专业人员在其职业生涯中都在多个平台上工作过。这个平均受访者在5个平台上工作过。.So there's not just diversitybetween人,还有多样性withineach individual's projects during a career.万博官网manbetx下载UX is not a field where you learn one thing and keep doing that all your life.As one of our respondents said,“我在农村长大。I had to learn how to do anything I was presented with.由于这个原因,learning the tools and trade of 万博官网manbetx下载UX has been a fun and exciting journey.I have picked up most of my knowledge from sitting down and doing,making mistakes."

我们问人们他们的工作角色。The most common were user research,interaction manbetx官方网站手机版design,以及信息架构(IA)。虽然这些角色并不令人惊讶,it was striking to note that43%的受访者三都of these main 万博官网manbetx下载UX roles,indicating a high level of diversity of work activity even on a day-to-day basis.(Often一个人是团队中唯一的用户体验专家万博官网manbetx下载and has to do everything.)

On a more detailed level,when we asked about specific activities such as making wireframes,收集要求,或者运行可用性研究,it was also striking how diverse 万博官网manbetx下载UX professionals' jobs are.Fully 75% of respondents said that they执行至少16种不同的用户体验活动万博官网manbetx下载.

万博官网manbetx下载用户体验专业人员几乎在每个行业工作。The largest sector among our respondents was IT with 23% of respondents,其次是财务(11%),health care (6%),education (6%),和广告/营销(6%)。

Best Background for 万博官网manbetx下载UX Jobs

当被问到优秀用户体验专业人士的特征时,我们的一位受访者说,"If you are a ‘lifelong learner',换言之,if you are paying attention,you will be able to take previous experiences and apply lessons learned from them to your new situation.That is more important to me than specific skills you might learn in school."

While most knowledge workers probably benefit from being lifelong learners,关键是更重要than a specific education is rare and one of the defining characteristics of the user experience field.

Even though持续在职学习是最重要的,90% of respondents had obtained a university degree.没有单一的程度来定义这个领域:设计,manbetx官方网站手机版psychology,and communication were the most common major areas,sharply pursued by English and computer science.All of these fields make some sense as a partial educational background for 万博官网manbetx下载UX professionals,但这五门学科加起来只占学士学位的45%。这个大多数用户体验专业人员都万博官网manbetx下载拥有来自众多其他学科的学位。,从历史到化学,其中大多数与用户体验工作没有直接关系。万博官网manbetx下载

最常见教育水平was a master's degree: 52% had at least one master's degree (some had two,which seems like overkill).只有6%的受访者是博士。Most of the remaining respondents with university diplomas held bachelor's degrees and 1% had associate's degrees.

万博官网manbetx下载UX pros with硕士学位与本科学历的同事一样,也就是说,nopattern.A broad diversity of topics was just as characteristic at this level.One difference is that the most popular master's degree discipline was HCI (人机交互)which is highly specialized as preparation for a 万博官网manbetx下载UX career.地11% of respondents with master's degrees were HCI graduates.这是唯一一个有两位数百分比的规则。Other directly-relevant master's degrees included 5% with degrees in information manbetx官方网站手机版design,4%的人为因素毕业生,3% in each of digital manbetx官方网站手机版design and technical communication,交互设计和信息架构各占1%。manbetx官方网站手机版Other top disciplines at the master's level were MBA,psychology,图书馆和信息科学,which are also all related to 万博官网manbetx下载UX work,even if they're not directly targeted at such jobs.

It's clearly eminently possible to have a 万博官网manbetx下载UX career without a degree in the field,and it's definitely not necessary to have a graduate degree.Still,if you want to get a graduate degree,以用户体验为目标的专业化是有意义的,because the percentage of relevant degrees is much higher at this level among your peers in the field.

Digging deeper than the title on the diploma,we asked people which of thesubjects that they studied had actually turned out to be useful.Continuing the diversity theme,there were lots of different things that 万博官网manbetx下载UX pros claim to find useful.根据有用性排序的最高分数是网页设计manbetx官方网站手机版,写作,programming,psychology,manbetx官方网站手机版设计,and research methods.Any list where programming and psychology are next to each other is clearly indicative of an interdisciplinary field.

正如一位受访者所说,“成功的首要项目是要有技术意识,以业务为中心,and an expert in manbetx官方网站手机版design and usability."这是一个很高的要求,但是,这种广泛的技能是成功的用户体验职业所需要的,万博官网manbetx下载它应该指导你选择课程:不管你可能追求什么程度,确保研究广泛主题的多样性。即使是从不编写生产代码的用户研究人员,也能从了解编程方面获益。一个好的写作课程对所有的用户体验人员来说都是必不可少的,万博官网manbetx下载considering the importance of communicating with other team members.

We also asked people what courses theywished他们拿走了。得分最高的是人机交互,psychology,和statistics.如果你还在上学,一定要参加这些主题的课程,这样以后你就不会后悔了。

Ultimately there's no single-best recommended background for entering the 万博官网manbetx下载UX field.如果你感兴趣,试一试。One respondent even said,“在用户体验设计中,我通过玩地牢和龙学到了我需要知道的一切。万博官网manbetx下载manbetx官方网站手机版你要学会做别人,if you're the Dungeon Master (DM) you … try to manbetx官方网站手机版design encounters that you want your players to go through (work flows,转换流程)。


不管你的学历如何,你可以进入用户体验,如前一节所示。How to get started?The top recommendation from our respondents was to pursue a理论与实践相结合.Respondents recommended reading (books,博客,manbetx官网手机登陆articles) and taking courses.But they also advised newcomers to practice manbetx官方网站手机版design,get an internship,and find a mentor.

Diversity strikes again.没有一件事要做,但是一个范围。

沿着同一条线,最好是得到一个first job你将要做很多不同的事情,而不是一份狭义的工作。(Assuming you have a choice of jobs,of course.) Our respondents also strongly recommend starting out in a company where usability has some amount of recognition,budget,and management support.后来,当你更强壮的时候,you can survive better in a place with some adversity,但不要从这样的公司开始。Look for companies that have workable processes and 万博官网manbetx下载UX roles in place,所以你可以从一开始就有效。

If you already have a job,remember that your past background is no barrier to 万博官网manbetx下载UX success,because user experience professionals come from every possible background.You can gradually change your job description from whatever it says now to being a 万博官网manbetx下载UX specialist.只需卷起你的众所周知的袖子开始:

  • 运行一个小用户测试你目前的项目有几个参与者。
  • 重新manbetx官方网站手机版设计一个特别可怕的屏幕,在这个屏幕上你只能强投资回报率从更高conversion rates.
  • 做一个迷你IA项目以一种比过去任意的方式把东西放在一起更有用的方式来构建站点的一个小角落。


没有单人间job titleto aim for: our respondents had210 different job titles.最受欢迎的标题是用户体验设计器manbetx官方网站手机版," but only 6% of respondents had this title.(另有3%的人是“高级用户体验设计师”。)manbetx官方网站手机版


  • “非常有趣,and even if you are working on something trivial — like a pizza-ordering app —  you are making people's lives easier."
  • “我每天都感到幸运,因为我就是在这里结束的。I've always been both creative and analytical and I get to practice both."
  • “我热爱我的工作,我得到了很多钱。”