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通过 Alita Joyceand 雅各布·尼尔森3月17日,2019

总结:青少年对自己的网络能力过于自信,但他们的表现比成年人差。较低的阅读水平,急躁,and undeveloped research skills reduce teens' task success and require simple,relatable sites.

青少年是有线的。科技与青少年的生活紧密结合,为他们创建有用的、可用的网站和应用程序比以往任何时候都更加重要。要在这样一个世界中取得成功,接下来最好的事情就是单击鼠标,文本消息中断就是规则,not the exception,网站和应用程序创建者必须清楚地了解青少年想要什么以及如何将他们保存在网站上。

To understand the expectations of a generation that grew up with technology and the internet,我们对青少年参与者进行了定性的可用性研究,以确定如何改进网站以符合这个年龄组的能力和偏好的准则。

Our research refutes many stereotypes,including the following:

  • 所有设备之间的移动熟练度传输
  • Teens just want to be entertained online with graphics and multimedia
  • 青少年精通科技
  • Teens want everything to be social

青少年并不是技术奇才,他们在网上肆意冲浪。And they don't like sites laden with glitzy,blinking graphics.让刻板印象主导你的设计会导致灾难性的结果。manbetx官方网站手机版

青少年在各种环境中的许多设备上使用互联网。For our research,我们专注于笔记本电脑的网络和应用程序可用性,tablets,以及移动设备。尽管青少年花了无数时间发短信和上社交媒体,we didn't focus on these activities because our goal was to derive manbetx官方网站手机版design guidelines for mainstream websites and apps,不帮助构建下一个Snapchat。


We derived 130 usability guidelines for engaging teens and keeping them on your site.These recommendations are based on观测研究使用多种方法。共有100名年龄在13至17岁之间的用户参与了三轮研究:本报告第一版原始研究中的38名青少年,第二项研究中的46名青少年,在最近的研究中有16个。我们对三种方法的结果进行三角测量:

  • Usability testing.我们一次一个地与测试参与者会面,并给他们任务去执行,asking them to vocalize their thoughts as they attempted tasks.To keep the scenarios as authentic as possible,we matched the tasks with each teen's actual interests and simulated real-world situations.
  • 实地研究.We observed teenagers in their homes and at school.During these site visits,we didn't give users tasks to perform,但只是简单的观察他们使用网络的方式,他们通常会在这些设置。
  • 面谈and焦点小组.为了进一步了解他们的经验和态度,we asked participants to offer stories and examples detailing how and when they used the web,and which sites they considered interesting and useful.我们还征求青少年关于如何使网站具有吸引力的建议。在可用性会议前后进行了访谈,以及在焦点小组中。

我们在美国进行了研究,英国and Australia,in cities and towns ranging from affluent suburbs to disadvantaged urban areas.We tested a roughly equivalent number of boys and girls on a total of 210 websites and 30 apps that covered a broad range of genres,包括:

  • 学校资源(诺丁汉大学,中央巴克斯高中西,BBC Bitesize,Quizlet)
  • Tourism/Arts & Entertainment (Visit London,TripAdvisor,ExploreChicago.com)
  • 健康(澳大利亚药物基金会)青少年,国家药物滥用研究所)
  • 信息/参考(性质,食品网络科学美国人)
  • News (Buzzfeed,美国有线电视新闻网WeiTeS.com每日邮报,《纽约时报》)
  • Entertainment and Games (Stack AR,YouTubePrasistList.com几何战争
  • 电子商务(阿迪达斯,H&M,ASOS,Jabra)
  • 公司网站(McCormick,联合利华Pepsi-Cola,Procter & Gamble,三星,莫尔顿盐)
  • 政府(英国政府,澳大利亚政府主要门户,宾夕法尼亚州机动车辆部,the U.S.白宫美国宇航局)
  • Nonprofits (Rotary International,Charity: Water,世界粮食计划署,国家野生动物联合会)

如这些例子所示,we tested both specialized sites that explicitly target teenagers and mainstream sites that include teens as part of a broad-target audience.

Teen Motivations for Using Websites

青少年上网进行各种活动,including entertainment.一般来说,they have a specific goal,even if that goal is just to keep themselves occupied for 10 minutes.

虽然他们的具体任务可能不同于成年人,teens are similar to adults in major ways: both groups expect websites to be easy to use and to let them accomplish their tasks.像成年人一样,teens are goal-oriented and don't surf the web aimlessly;因此,可用性对于他们和其他用户组一样重要。

Teens in our studies reported using the web or various apps for:

  • 学校作业
  • 兴趣爱好或其他特殊兴趣(包括学习新技能或寻找有趣的活动)
  • 娱乐(包括音乐,videos,和游戏)
  • News (including sports,时事,和娱乐)
  • 学习新主题
  • Talking to friends
  • 购物

Even when teens don't make purchases on ecommerce websites,他们会去拜访他们,研究产品,为他们生活中携带着信用卡的成年人建立愿望清单。


好消息:Teens are becoming more successful at navigating websites and finding what they need.在第三次研究时,年龄最大的参与者出生于2001年,最小的参与者出生于2005年;therefore,所有参与这项研究的人都是通过电脑长大的。在本报告过去15年进行的三项研究中,青少年花在电脑和移动设备上的时间不断增加。How effective teenagers are with technology is correlated with the amount of time using technology.

青少年是在进步还是网站在进步?可能两者兼而有之。We observed many of the same bad user habits among teens in our last study as we saw in our first study,回到2004。Thus,the improved performance obviously stems in part from improvements in website manbetx官方网站手机版design.这就是说,even though teens in our original study were heavy web users,如今的青少年更容易上网,并且花更多的时间在上网上。这一代人是随着技术而成长的,在使用技术方面比我们第一次研究的参与者(其中最年长的参与者出生于1988年,最年轻的参与者出生于1992年)要有效得多。

坏消息:Teens are not as invincible as some people think.Although teens might feel confident online,they do make mistakes and often give up quickly.快速移动的青少年也比成年人不那么谨慎,做出迅速的判断;这会导致成功完成的任务减少。


  • 阅读能力不足
  • 不太成熟的研究策略
  • 极大地降低了耐心

To improve your site's usability among teens,you must consider all three factors.Also note that we have seen these factors in all our research with teenagers during a 15-year period,这意味着他们可能在未来继续持有,even if other teen habits may change as fads come and go.

Across different types of websites,青少年有电子商务最成功websites,which often adhered to manbetx官方网站手机版design standards and required little reading.青少年在内容密集、导航方案差的大型网站上遇到了最大的挑战。Government,非营利组织,and school sites were the biggest culprits of poor usability.

尽管可用性有所改善,we observed users struggling with the same issues as in previous years — as well as new issues created by emerging features and manbetx官方网站手机版design approaches.Thus,both traditional and new guidelines must be considered as technology and people continually evolve;our new report contains 130 total guidelines,相比之下,第一版为61,第二版为111。

许多指导原则也适用于一般观众。对于青少年来说,however,these guidelines are even more important because the usability issues present bigger hurdles.


为不耐烦的用户编写.Nothing deters younger audiences more than a cluttered screen full of text.Teens can quickly become bored,分心的,沮丧。

Teenagers don't like to read a lot on the web.在学校里他们受够了。另外,他们的阅读能力并不理想,尤其是年轻人。Sites that were easy to scan or that illustrated concepts visually were strongly preferred to sites with dense text.

应用正确的网页书写和格式techniques is crucial in communicating with teens.Display content in small,meaningful chunkswith plenty of white space.小部分可以帮助学生保留信息,并在不可避免的短信和电话中断后找到他们离开的地方。

我们研究的青少年经常被网站上的内容淹没。把他们的注意力集中在一个领域,we observed several teens highlighting text as they read down the page.以下是他们的一些评论:

"Sometimes reading in black and white is hard.Highlight helps me read better." – 16-year-old male


青少年在屏幕上的信息太多了。我们观察到多个参与者在页面上突出显示文本以帮助他们集中注意力-这里,a teen highlighted the term bluegrass,as she wondered what type of music that was.

Help teens learn and stay focused by choosing your words wisely.Use words that teens understand.写一些短句和段落。使用项目符号点格式化流程的关键点或步骤。Teens generally have poorer阅读和理解技能比成年人。如果你的网站面向广大的读者,aim to write at a 6th-grade reading level (or lower).Writing at this level will help audiences of all ages — young and old — quickly understand your content.

这项研究的一个惊人发现是:青少年和成年人一样不喜欢小字体.我们经常警告网站使用小文本因为对老年人(甚至是40多岁的人)的负面影响,他的视力开始下降)。We've always assumed that tiny text predominated because most web manbetx官方网站手机版designers are young and still have perfect vision,so we were surprised that small type often caused problems or provoked negative comments from our study's teen users.Even though this audience is sufficiently sharp-eyed,大多数青少年行动太快,太容易分心,不注意小文字。.



青少年抱怨他们觉得无聊的网站。如果你的目标是让青少年留在你的网站上,沉闷的内容就是死亡之吻。然而,不是所有的事情都需要互动和幻想。尽管青少年对美学有很强的鉴赏力,they detest sites that appear cluttered and contain pointless multimedia.

Beware of overusing interactive features just because you manbetx官方网站手机版design for younger audiences.多媒体可以吸引或激怒青少年,取决于它的实用性。The best online experiences for teens are those that teach them something new or keep them focused on a goal.

有什么好处?The following interactive features all worked well because they let teens不是简单地坐着看书:

  • Online quizzes
  • Forms for providing feedback or asking questions
  • Online voting
  • Games
  • 共享图片或故事的功能
  • Features for creating and editing content


Thesite type influences user expectations.例如,青少年希望电子商务和品牌网站看起来专业,和信息网站看起来简单和抛光。对于后一个站点,以清晰的方式呈现有趣的内容比尝试新的复杂功能更有吸引力。Teens can learn and feel engaged without the nonessential enhancements.


慢载网站是一个交易破坏者。不管你做什么,make sure your site loads quickly.缓慢的,缓慢的网站让任何人都感到沮丧,但是他们对那些期望立即得到满足的年轻观众尤其反感。

Think twice before you develop that super cool widget or include that 4K video.If it's slow or buggy,算了吧。Teens won't have the patience for it.Because teens often work on older,二手设备——有时互联网连接速度较慢——花哨的功能和高分辨率多媒体可能无法正常工作。

"I hate this waiting.很烦人…我通常不会等这么长时间才加载页面。我会去另一个地方,我会去下一个。”—17岁的男性


Avoid anything that sounds condescending or babyish.正确的语调可以使你的网站成败。青少年与同龄人创造的内容有关,so supplement your content with real stories,images,and examples from other teens.

我们研究中的一些网站试图在一个地区同时为儿童和青少年服务,usually titledKids.A grave mistake:“孩子”这个词是青少年讨厌的词.Teenagers are fiercely proud of their newly won status,他们也不希望有过于幼稚的内容——这也是一个让年轻观众更轻松的原因,那就是大量的动画和华丽的配色方案。We recommend having separate sections for young children and teens,标记KidsandTeens,respectively.

Let Teens Control the Social Aspects

Facilitate sharing but don't force it.青少年依靠科技进行社交,but他们不想一直社交.他们想控制他们共享的内容和共享方式。Sites that force teens to register and then automatically make their profile public violate trust.Parents and teachers teach teens to protect their privacy at a young age,青少年早期学习的其中一件事就是避免敏感的网站。

When offering sharing options,包括复制网址的链接,因为青少年可能会浏览他们的手机并想直接与朋友分享。Participants in our studies often preferred using social media apps,像Snapchat一样,给朋友留言,所以提供一个Copy Link选项允许他们发送直接消息to a friend on any platform.当此功能不可用时,他们倾向于截图并与朋友分享。Though this behavior reaches their goal,从业务的角度来看,它妨碍了其他青少年轻松访问内容的能力。


All of the teenagers in our most recent study had mobile devices,但并非所有人都有笔记本电脑或电脑。因此,teens are often viewing your content from the palm of their hand.


Teens often work on触控设备,making interactions that require precision — such asdropdown菜单,拖放,and small buttons — difficult.manbetx官方网站手机版滚动效果和小点击区等设计元素也存在问题,如果它们可以使用的话。小文本大小和密集的文本使阅读困难。

Media portrays teens as competent computer jockeys.In reality,teens' overconfidence combined with their developing cognitive abilities means they often give up quickly and blame the website's manbetx官方网站手机版design.They don't blame themselves,他们责怪你.

Age-Group Differences

The following table summarizes the main similarities and differences in web-manbetx官方网站手机版design approaches foryoung children,teenagers,大学生,和成年人。(关于儿童的调查结果来自我们的studies with 3–12-year-old users;the findings about college students are from our与18-25岁的用户一起学习







Heavy reliance on search;难以制定搜索查询;单击SERP中的最上面的结果

Heavy reliance on search;难以制定搜索查询;单击SERP中的最上面的结果

Heavy reliance on search;难以制定搜索查询;单击SERP中的最上面的结果









Dislike them;宿舍的自动播放声音有干扰

Dislike them;autoplay sound disruptive at work




Want answers quickly;对复杂的互动没有耐心;容易分心。

Want answers quickly,but more likely to wait than college students









经常使用;many tabs open at a time

Commonly used;取决于技术舒适性













Want age-appropriate content;prefer sites with neutral graphics rather than childish ones



很明显,there are many differences between age groups.青少年的最高可用性水平来自专门针对其需求和行为的设计,manbetx官方网站手机版不同于成人和幼儿。如表所示,this is true both for interaction manbetx官方网站手机版design and for more obvious factors,例如主题和内容样式。


新版本的关于青少年用户研究的报告,with actionable 万博官manbetx官方网站手机版网manbetx下载UX design guidelines现在可以下载。