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通过 Sarah GibbonsJuly 9,2017


What Is a Service?

Traditional economics draws a clear distinction between goods and services.Goods are tangible and consumable — pens,太阳镜,or shoes.Services are instantaneous exchanges that are intangible and do not result in ownership—medical treatment,邮政局,或者公共交通。

今天,商品和服务之间不再有明显的区别。商品的连续体服务在中间存在大量的组合产品和服务。例如,歌曲(MP3文件)是一种可以通过Spotify或Apple Music等服务访问的产品。To the user,the difference between a product and service—owning the sound file versus streaming the song—can be close to identical while behind the scenes they are quite different.

NN/g Service manbetx官方网站手机版Design 101: Goods-Services Continuum

随着服务成熟度的提高,支持他们的需要也是如此。Complex user experiences often break due to an internal organizational shortcoming — a weak link in the ecosystem.例如,你上次打电话给支持热线是什么时候?提供了你的个人信息,只是转给另一个代理人,要求你重复你已经提供的确切信息?这一症结源于缺乏服务设计导致的内部流程缺陷。manbetx官方网站手机版


“服务设计”一词是由Lynn Shomanbetx官方网站手机版stack在1982年创造的。Shostack proposed that organizations develop an understanding of how behind-the-scenes processes interact with each other because "leaving services to individual talent and managing the pieces rather than the whole make a company more vulnerable and creates a service that reacts slowly to market needs and opportunities."

This is still true today,but the responsibility does not fall on only operations and management,就像二十年前一样。实践服务设计是整个组织的责任。manbetx官方网站手机版


大多数组织都以产品和交付渠道为中心。Many of the organizations' resources (time,budget,logistics) are spent on customer-facing outputs,忽略了内部过程(包括组织员工的经验);服务设计关注这些manbetx官方网站手机版内部流程。

Definition:服务设计是规划和manbetx官方网站手机版组织企业资源(人、物、物)的活动。道具,和流程)为了(1)直接改善员工的经验,(2)间接地,the customer's experience.

Imagine a restaurant where there are a range employees: hosts,servers,男侍者厨师。Service manbetx官方网站手机版design focuses on how the restaurant operates and delivers the food it promises—from sourcing and receiving ingredients,到新厨师的登机,为厨师提供有关食客过敏的信息。每一个移动的部分在食物到达用餐者的盘子里起着作用,even though it is not directly part of their experience.Service manbetx官方网站手机版design can be mapped using a服务蓝图.



在用户体验设计中,必须设计多个组件:视manbetx官方网站手机版觉,功能和命令,文案,信息架构,还有更多。Not only should each component must be manbetx官方网站手机版designed correctly,but they also be integrated to create a total user experience.服务设计遵循相同manbetx官方网站手机版的基本思想。有几个部分,每一个都应该设计正确,manbetx官方网站手机版所有这些都应该整合起来。

The three main components of service manbetx官方网站手机版design are:

People.This component includes anyone who creates or uses the service,as well as individuals who may be indirectly affected by the service.

Examples include:

  • 员工
  • Customers
  • 在整个服务过程中遇到的其他客户
  • 合作伙伴


Examples include:

  • Physical space:  storefront,出纳窗口会议室
  • 提供服务的数字环境
    • Webpages
    • Blogs
    • Social Media
  • 对象和抵押品
    • 数字档案
    • Physical products

过程。这些是任何工作流,procedures,or rituals performed by either the employee or the user throughout a service.

Examples include:

  • 从自动取款机取款
  • Getting an issue resolved over support
  • Interviewing a new employee
  • Sharing a file

回到餐厅的例子,人们将是种植农产品的农民,restaurant managers,厨师,hosts,和服务器。道具包括(除其他外):厨房,成分,POS软件还有制服。流程包括:员工打卡,服务器输入订单,清洗盘子,and storing food.

Frontstage vs.后台



Though not ever seen by the audience,the backstage plays a critical part in shaping the audience's experience.在餐馆里,厨房里发生的事决定了你桌上的东西。

前台components include:

后台components includes:

  • 政策
  • 技术
  • 基础设施
  • 系统


服务设计不仅仅是manbetx官方网站手机版设计服务。Service manbetx官方网站手机版design addresses how an organization gets something done— think "experience of the employee." Designing a service addresses the touchpoints that create a customer's journey — think "experience of the user."


Why do we need to care about service manbetx官方网站手机版design and the "experience of the employee" as 万博官网manbetx下载UX Designers?一个组织的后台流程(我们如何在内部做事)也有同样多的内容,if not more,impact on the overall user experience as the visible points of interaction that users encounter.If a server does not successfully communicate allergies to the chef,a diner could consume food with severe consequences.如果餐馆人满为患,但是有一个清理桌子和分配座位的系统过程,客户一开始就不必等待,也不必知道它过于拥挤。


大多数组织的资源(时间,budget,logistics) are spent on customer-facing outputs,而忽略了内部过程(包括组织员工的经验)。This disconnect triggers a common,人们普遍认为一只手不知道另一只手在做什么。


  • 表面冲突。业务模型和服务设计模型经常发生冲突,因为业务模型并不总是manbetx官方网站手机版与组织提供的服务一致。Service manbetx官方网站手机版design triggers thought and provides context around systems that need to be in place in order to adequately provide a service throughout the entire product's life cycle (and in some cases,超越)
  • 促进硬对话。专注于程序和政策的讨论暴露了薄弱环节和偏差,使组织能够设计协作和跨职能的解决方案。
  • Reducing redundancies with a bird's-eye view.Mapping out the whole cycle of internal service processes gives companies a bird's-eye view of its service ecosystem,whether within one large offering,or across multiple subofferings.This process helps pinpoint where duplicate efforts occur,likely causing employee frustration and wasted resources.Eliminating redundancies conserves energy,提高员工效率,降低成本。
  • 形成关系。服务设计有助于协manbetx官方网站手机版调内部服务规定,如角色,backstage actors,过程,and workflows to the equivalent frontstage personnel.回到最初的例子,with service manbetx官方网站手机版design,向一个代理提供的信息应可供与同一客户交互的所有其他代理使用。


当后台出现问题时,他们的首要后果是:服务差,customer frustration,and inconsistent channels.简化后台流程,提高员工体验,哪一个,in turn,允许他们创建更好的用户体验。



卡尔巴赫吉姆。“绘图经验”,O'Reilly Media,Inc,2016。