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最讨厌的在线广告技术

通过 特蕾丝·费森登6月4日,二千零一十七

总结:情态广告重新组织内容的广告,自动播放视频广告是最不受欢迎的。桌面上烦人的广告在手机上变得难以忍受。


In 2004,we wrote about the最讨厌的广告技巧based on research conducted by克里斯蒂安·罗勒还有John Boyd。从那时起,网络广告发生了巨大变化,为我们提供大量新的测试格式和新的问题。With that,we decided to run a study to determine which advertising techniques are most disruptive and detrimental for the modern user experience.

Methodology

We conducted a survey with 452 adult respondents from the United States who were not employed in an IT- or marketing-related industry.在本次调查中,参与者被展示了23个与不同类型广告相对应的线框,并按1到7的比例对他们的厌恶程度进行了评分。

为同一个广告的桌面和移动变体提供了线框,when possible.如果在移动设备上没有常见或实用的广告类型实现,only the desktop variant was shown.We used wireframes instead of screenshots as our stimuli to avoid influencing users with the ad's visual manbetx官方网站手机版design,消息,or brand.The wireframes focused people's attention on the ad format.

模式广告的桌面和移动线框,在调查中单独列出。
The desktop and mobile wireframes of the情态动词advertisement,在调查中单独列出。

线框内的广告为亮紫色,便于识别,并包含占位符文本阅读。"This is an advertisement." The wireframes also had accompanying explanatory text to provide more context.The table below shows the types of ads used in the study and the corresponding explanatory text presented to participants.

测试的广告类型,along with accompanying explanatory text
广告类型 Desktop Mobile

情态动词
"This ad appears on top of a site's content when you go to the site.The ad must be closed before you can interact with the site content."

X X

Nonmodal
"This ad appears on top of the content as you visit a site,typically in the lower right corner of the page.It stays in place as you scroll through the site."

X

Persistent banner (top of content)
“此广告出现在页面顶部,不阻止内容,并在滚动时保持原位。It is locked to the top of the browser window."

X X

Persistent banner (bottom of content)
"This ad appears at the bottom of the page and stays in place as you scroll,locked to the bottom of the browser window."

X X

Intracontent (with content reorganization)
"As the page loads,广告出现并向下移动现有内容。“

X X

Intracontent (without content reorganization)
“此广告出现在网站的主要内容中。”

X X

右轨
"This advertisement is located on the right side of the page."

X

Right rail (animated)
"The advertisement is located on the right side of the page,and it flashes to get your attention."

X

prevideo(不跳过)
"When you play a video on a website,an advertisement plays first."

X

prevideo(带跳过)
"When you play a video on a website,广告首先播放,5秒钟后可以跳过。“

X

Autoplay video (with skip)
"This video advertisement starts playing automatically when you arrive at a website,然后是您正在访问的网站上的视频内容。“

X

重定向
“你在网上购物。Later,您可以在其他网站上看到同一项目或公司的广告。”

X

赞助的社交媒体内容
"This advertisement appears in your feed on a social media site."

X X

相关链接
"These ads appear at the bottom of an article as related links."

X X

欺骗性环节
“你到达一个需要采取行动的网站,例如下载文件或运行测试。在要下载的链接附近有其他类似的链接,which are advertisements."

X X

在参与者对所有23个线框进行评分之后,they were presented with an开放式问题详细说明他们特别喜欢或不喜欢的广告类型。These responses were coded according to type or characteristic of the advertisement (i.e.if additional action was required to dismiss the advertisement,or if it could be dismissed right away — a distinction that we cover later in this article).We extracted patterns from these responses,and revealed specificuser requirements for online advertising.

Ad Preference Ratings

In the following analysis,我们报告不喜欢,which is a number from 1 to 7 (1= strong like,7 = strong dislike) that directly reflects participants' ratings.所有广告的总平均分为5.23分。This number shows that our respondents aren't rabid haters of advertising per se.The overall feeling is slight annoyance;但这是平均值。正如我们所看到的,某些广告形式会让用户更加恼火,并会跨入“仇恨”的领域。

An ANOVA on ad type and device showed that people hate mobile ads more than they hate desktop ads (desktop average of 5.09 vs.mobile average of 5.45;这一差异在p<0.0001时具有统计学意义。AD类型(稍后讨论)的影响也具有统计学意义(p<0.0001)。

按设备分级
Average advertisement ratings by device (error bars represent confidence interval at 95% confidence level)

None of the ad types were particularly liked: the lowest average rating was 3.81 (just barely better than the neutral point of 4) — that is,most people did not indicate positive affect for any ads,but rather ambivalence toward certain advertisement types.

广告等级(按广告类型)
Advertisement ratings by advertisement type and device,按字母顺序

To understand how ads compared with each other,我们进行了多次比较测试(使用tukey对比)。We found that,for most advertisement types,the mobile and the desktop counterparts did not differ significantly,with the exception of related links and the prevideo advertisement (p< 0.0001).For the desktop prevideo ad,用户可以跳过广告,whereas that wasn't possible with the mobile variant because most native mobile video players do not allow users to skip ads or click on video annotations.Thus,这一发现使得很难确定是移动状况还是缺乏跳过广告的能力,这使得广告更加烦人。On the other hand,相关链接广告在手机上比在桌面上更不受欢迎(p<0.05)。and that difference can reliably be attributed to the device on which they were presented.

Most Hated Advertisements on Desktop

Ad Ratings for Desktop
桌面广告评级(误差条代表95%的置信区间)

Tukey对比显示桌面上最讨厌的四大广告并没有显著差异。但与所有其他广告类型有显著差异(有一个例外:欺骗性链接与顶级持久性横幅没有区别)。so it would be fair to say that桌面上最讨厌的广告类型的赢家是模式广告之间的四方联系,autoplay video ads,内容内的广告,它们在页面内容加载时随机播放,and deceptive links that look like content but are ads.Pro-tip: don't run these types of ads if you want people to like you.

As for the ads that were hated the least on desktop: the ratings for nonanimated right-rail ads and related links did not significantly differ from each other,但明显低于其他类型的广告。Running such ads should be safe and not damage users' brand loyalty.

Another notable finding is that there was no difference in annoyance between the two types of persistent banners (top and bottom).不足为奇,动画右铁路广告被认为比非动画广告更不受欢迎。

手机上最不喜欢的广告

Ad Ratings for Mobile
Mobile advertisement ratings (error bars represent 95% confidence intervals)

手机上,不喜欢广告的层次结构更为复杂。The most disliked ads were modal & intracontent ads with content reorganization— these were rated significantly higher than all other ads (with the exception of prevideo without skip and deceptive links).

Related links was the clear mobile-ad winner: it was rated as least disliked and differed significantly from all other ad ratings.

prevideo广告(没有跳过选项)和欺骗性链接的评级明显低于赞助社交媒体和相关链接。但与其他链接没有区别。尽管最高持久性横幅的平均评分高于最低持久性横幅,这一差异没有达到统计学意义。

Related links were significantly less disliked (p<0.001) than any other mobile ad type.They are the only advertising format we deem to be completely safe to use on mobile devices.

开放式参与者回答

我们收到了330份开放式答复。任何没有关于广告的具体信息或对广告的意见的评论都被认为是不合格的回答,并从我们的数据集中删除。

在330个开放式响应中,232 were qualified responses which were coded to indicate the ad attribute that the participant mentioned (e.g.,obstructed content,动画广告)和评论表达的影响(例如,positive,negative).例如,如果一个参与者表示她“不介意”,或者“对我已经看过的产品的广告很满意”,我们将反应影响编码为正面,将广告属性编码为重新定位广告;或者,如果一个参与者表示他不喜欢“弹出并覆盖屏幕”的广告,我们将评论影响标记为负面,将广告属性标记为阻碍内容(因为我们不知道参与者是否提到部分覆盖屏幕的非模态广告或完全覆盖内容的模态广告)。Naturally,some respondents had more to say about ads than others,and each ad attribute that was mentioned was tagged in the response.

然后我们观察所有积极和消极的反应,and broke down the totals into attributes that were tagged.总而言之,我们确定了15个不同属性;这些与我们的一些广告类型重叠。

Percentage of negative open-ended comments (relative to total number of responses),按AD属性拆分

Most of the ad attributes mentioned were associated with a negative affect only,没有收到积极的意见。A few exceptions stood out:

  • 右铁路和相关链接收到了大多数积极的评论。
    • “我喜欢不妨碍内容的广告。我可以向旁边看一眼,决定是否要开门,但如果我没有选择,我会很生气。”
    • "I am fond of links to the side and at the end of my pages.我不能告诉你为什么,但我喜欢它们,而且比其他任何地方都更有可能点击它们并查看它们。”
  • Banner ads,可以通过用户操作取消的广告,and video ads that could be skipped received some positive comments,尽管大多数评论都是负面的。这里的区别在于,用户积极地查看可以跳过或忽略的广告,他们有控制权。However,users negatively viewed advertisements which "forced" an interaction,从而延迟对主要内容的访问。感知控制似乎是影响过度的影响因素。
    • “突然出现的广告,强迫你关闭它们,或者为了引起注意而闪现,只是让我讨厌广告中的产品。"
    • "Video ads before a video you want to watch are okay as long as they are short and give you an option to skip after so many seconds."
  • 重新定位广告的效果好坏参半——64%的广告有负面影响,很多人评论说这些广告是有用的和相关的。其他人抱怨这些广告不再有用,或者说它们“令人毛骨悚然”,而且,在某些情况下,毁了惊喜礼物。
    • “我知道很多人认为让你一直在寻找的物品出现在广告上是很令人毛骨悚然的,但我喜欢!”
    • “…当我看到我搜索的确切产品的广告时,我总是觉得这是不必要的,如果他们展示类似的产品会更好。”
    • “我讨厌你在其他网站上搜索到的东西。毁了圣诞节!”

产生最积极评论的广告是那些看起来不像广告或与用户的主要任务相关的广告。Participants spoke favorably about advertisements which "blended in" with content,像社交媒体和prevideo广告(带skip)。Sponsored social media ads tend to be displayed amidst other posts,formatted nearly identically,and prevideo advertisements were expected and tolerated (if they were not autoplay videos,可以跳过)。However,重要的是要注意,欺骗的联系是强烈不喜欢和not trusted for their lack of upfront disclosure.It's a delicate balance to utilize these findings for advertising creatives: manbetx官方网站手机版design to blend in without being deceptive.

移动VSDesktop Ads

广告往往在移动设备上比在桌面上收到的负面效果更大。One reason may be the relatively larger footprint that ads have on mobile screens: limited real estate exacerbates the existing usability problems found on desktop.此外,移动应用的背景往往是“随时随地”——也就是说,用户更容易被竞争性刺激分散注意力,对效率的需求急剧增加。

With that in mind,让桌面上的广告烦人的东西会使它在手机上难以忍受。

结论:2004年广告与Today?

有些事情不会改变-用户的期望,in particular.The popups of the early 2000s have reincarnated as modal windows,and are hated just as viscerally today as they were over a decade ago.自动播放的音频今天收到同样负面的。以下广告特征对参与者和2000年代初一样令人恼火:

  • 弹出
  • Slow loading time
  • Covers what you are trying to see
  • Moves content around
  • 占据大部分页面
  • 自动播放声音

虽然,作为一个整体,网络可用性已经提高在过去的几年里,历史重演和manbetx官方网站手机版设计师也会犯同样的错误over and over again.manbetx官方网站手机版Designers and marketers continuously need to walk a line between providing a good user experience and increasing advertising revenue.没有“正确”的答案或黄金格式供设计师使用,以完美地到达观众;manbetx官方网站手机版不可避免地会有对变革的抵制,以及对惯例和可预测性的渴望。That said,如果,在过去的十年里,用户仍然对同样的问题感到遗憾,我们该认真对待他们了。

Resources

如果你想更详细地看到这些线框,或者把它们用于你自己的研究,Nielsen manbetx官网手机登陆Norman Group reserves rights to these images,但是允许你使用它们甚至修改它们,as long as you credit us with the original research and reference this study.下面,您可以找到一个.zip文件,其中包含以下内容:

-本研究中使用的所有线框的PNG
-包含用于创建线框的基本元素的PPT
- A ReadMe.txt,which contains copyright information about how you can use these wireframes

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