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通过 拉鲁卡布迪乌April 19,2015

总结:Mobile smartphones come with inherent constraints: small screen,短时间会议,一次显示一个窗口,以及可变连接性。但它们的一些特性也提供了独特的机会。移动设计原则反manbetx官方网站手机版映了这些局限性和优势。

移动设备改变了我们的生活方式和日常活动。我们不仅可以在手机上访问几乎任何类型的内容,但是现在大多数的移动智能手机都可以存支票,accept credit cards,订购食物并支付杂货费,签署数字文件,and even lock our house door.由于智能手机这一新技术的存在,其中一些任务变得更加容易。


在过去的7年里,我们一直在进行,self-funded mobile-usability project that involved doing repeated rounds of用户测试在各种移动网站和应用程序上.总体而言,151 participants were part of this project: most of them were in the US,但我们也在澳大利亚举办了会议,香港,荷兰Romania,还有英国。在所有这些研究中,参与者把他们自己的手机带到我们的实验室。

While初始回合包括所有类型的手机(从触摸屏手机,nontouch smartphones,以及功能性手机)。more recent studies focused on touch phones only,反映了当前的市场渗透率数据。Moreover,the last of our studies exclusively involvedphablets(屏幕大于5.3英寸的触摸屏智能手机)。如果适用,我们要求参与者向我们展示他们在手机上安装的应用程序,然后我们给他们任务来完成使用移动应用或网络。

Besides user testing,we also used other研究方法比如日记研究和专家评论。作为客户项目的一部分,我们还测试了各种各样的移动网站和应用程序,但我们不能报告这些研究的具体结果。We obviously do use this confidential research to inspire and inform our publishable research.

The mobile research discussed here was separate from our平板电脑用户体验研究.尽管有一些相似之处(例如,手持式触摸屏)平板电脑和手机的使用方式有所不同,交互设计约束也略有不同,manbetx官方网站手机版导致为这两类设备设计不同的可用性准则。manbetx官方网站手机版

Mobile Limitations and Strengths

Mobile phones come with strengths,但也有局限性。这些优点和局限性在良好的移动用户体验中发挥了作用。

Small Screen

尽管大屏幕手机有着现代趋势,what makes mobile phones so convenient and portable is their small size.与台式机甚至笔记本电脑屏幕相比,手机屏幕容纳的内容要少得多。As a result,屏幕大小是移动设备的一个严重限制。在30英寸显示器的折叠上方显示的内容需要在4英寸小屏幕上显示5个屏幕。Thus,mobile users must (1) incur a higherinteraction costin order to access the same amount of information;(2)依靠短期记忆to refer to information that is not visible on the screen.It's thus not surprising that移动内容的难度是原来的两倍.

每当您在移动屏幕上包含新的设计元素或新的内容时,manbetx官方网站手机版其他东西被推出(或below the fold).Think hard of the机会成本of each new element: what does it mean for the users if you leave out element B in order to include element A?Is element A more important than element B?内容和功能优先级是关键。尽管我们在本报告中提供了一般指导方针,your answer likely depends on the kinds of users and tasks that you have.

表示有助于使用站点或应用程序的用户界面元素。Users come to a site to find information that they need or to accomplish a task,not to contemplate the beauty of buttons,navigation,菜单,and other manbetx官方网站手机版design elements.内容总是令人感兴趣的(无论是在移动设备上还是在桌面上)。但是然而在桌面上有足够的屏幕空间让内容和Chrome共存,经常,手机上,manbetx官方网站手机版designers must淡化铬元素,为基本内容腾出空间.


Portable = Interruptible

手机是便携式的: most fit easily in a pocket or purse and they tend to follow us everywhere.因为我们在不同的环境和情况下使用手机,we are more likely to be打断when using such devices: an external event in the outside environment may demand our attention and require us to stop whatever we were doing on the small screen.As a result,attention on mobile is often fragmentedand移动设备上的会话很短.事实上,the average mobile session duration is 72 seconds.In comparison,我们自己的研究表明,在桌面上,the average session is 150 seconds: more than twice as large.


manbetx官方网站手机版设计人员应该保存上下文,并使用户能够方便地恢复上下文和恢复中断的任务。The mobile app or website must save state at all times and be prepared for such interruptions.它还应尽可能顺利地切换回应用程序/网站,这样用户就不必在中断前重做已经完成的工作。

Moreover,mobile users don't always make definitive decisions,但可能希望在带宽或屏幕更大的环境中返回到某些内容。允许用户保存历史记录,以及通过电子邮件或与自己或他人共享信息。And also allow them to返回到其他平台上的数据并访问他们在移动设备上执行的任何操作。

但是设计manbetx官方网站手机版中断不仅意味着保存状态。It also meansprioritizing the essentialand简化任务和交互.因为注意力分散,努力向用户展示他们需要的东西。大量的细节和要求他们分析相关事实的文本墙并不是一种友好的中断。要点总是在细节之前。简单的任务很容易快速完成。比起一个有很多步骤和选择的人,恢复工作也更容易。

Single Window

Although some phone manufactures are trying to accommodate multiple windows on the screen at the same time,移动屏幕的有限尺寸使得这个目标很不现实,即使是今天的大屏幕手机。绝大多数用户一次只能看到一个窗口(因此只能看到一个应用程序或网站);它们不能拆分屏幕(如桌面上的屏幕)并同时使用两个不同的应用程序。

单窗口约束意味着设计应该manbetx官方网站手机版self-sufficient:任何移动任务都应该可以在单个应用程序或单个网站上轻松完成。用户不必离开应用程序(或网站)来查找应用程序所需的信息,但它没有提供。记住纸笔,even if available,经常在旅途中无法使用。如果用户必须将信息从一个应用程序移动到另一个应用程序,他们可能需要复制粘贴(或者更糟的是,依靠他们的记忆,增加他们的cognitive load;the interaction will become more complex and error prone.Apps and websites should be self-sufficient and should not necessitate any external props,无论是物理的还是虚拟的。


触摸屏带来许多祝福和罪恶。手势表示隐藏,alternate user interface (UI),那,如果建造时有适当的负担,能使互动流畅、高效,节省屏幕的不动产。But they also suffer from low memorability and discoverability.另一方面,it's hard to type proficiently on a tiny virtual keyboard and it's easy to accidentally touch the wrong target.

也许最大的问题与打字: on a soft keyboard,用户需要不断地在他们输入的内容和键盘区域之间分散注意力。在没有触觉反馈的情况下,触摸打字是不可能的;另外,键盘本身很小,钥匙也很拥挤。

另一触摸和其他类型输入(如鼠标)之间的差异是说,优化到达时间和最小化错误所需的目标尺寸对于触摸来说要比鼠标大得多。So not only is the screen smaller than a laptop or desktop screen,但是按钮和其他目标需要比常规监视器上的大。

Because on a touchscreen there can be many target areas,容易发生意外接触。有些会让用户失去方向感,不确定发生了什么。Undo是原始的10可用性启发法,它在触摸设备上更为重要。

Variable Connectivity

Even in the era of fast cellular networks and ubiquitous Wi-Fi,coverage is not universal or equally good.电话用户经常抱怨连接问题。Every new page load translates into a significant waiting time when the network does not cooperate.

If you want users to finish their tasks on your mobile site or in your app,注意等待时间。manbetx官方网站手机版Design pages that are light,yet contain as much information as possible,避免从客户机到服务器的多次来回访问。尽量减少步骤的数量,最终,页面加载数。


手机有很多局限性,but also with many unique features — some of themavailable only to apps,others also accessible for websites.The camera,microphone,and GPS are conveniently integrated into the device and can be easily used to make input easier and get around some of the difficulties of typing.Photographs can transmit more nuanced information that often cannot be easily captured in text (think of describing a product that you are looking at).通知允许用户立即更新与其相关的事件。Touch ID允许用户使用指纹登录,without typing passwords.苹果支付(Apple Pay)和谷歌钱包(Google Wallet)允许用户在现实生活中或网上使用手机支付,不输入信用卡。


New Research Report

我们的新报告捕捉到了许多移动可用性发现。Mobile User Experience.(Now published in a newer edition,reflecting events and research since this article was written.) Many guidelines reflect the current mobile patterns and interactions;old guidelines that were still retained were revamped with new examples.