总结：Many people use digital media to avoid silence or empty time..
- Digital media (e.G.,TV channels or videos,音乐，podcasts) areplayed in the backgroundwhile users perform other tasks..
- Devices such as smartphones and tables are used tokill time and avoid boredom..
Digital Media as Background Noise
在我们的许多学习课程中，participants turned on the digital media and then entirely ignored it while performing other activities.For example,one participant in our Toronto field study was working on a craft project with her daughter in her living room.Before beginning the project,she turned on the television.For the whole hour while she and her daughter worked on the craft project,neither of them looking at the TV even once..
另一位现场研究参与者与妻子一起在Netflix上拍摄了一部电影。He and his wife would sit down and watch the movie for a few minutes,then one of them would walk away to perform some other task and return later — never pausing the movie.他们显然对电影本身的情节不感兴趣。这部电影是他们在其他活动中休息的地方。.
一些人觉得几乎有强迫性的需要有一些音频，effectively filling the silence in their lives..
"我不喜欢安静地工作。I need to have the news on,or music.背景噪音帮助我。""
In our diary studies conducted in China and US,131 responses reportedmultitasking or switching between tasks.Of those activities,39%涉及音频或视频媒体消费。.
An Intensifying Phenomenon
Using the television or audio media as background noise predates the internet and is perhaps due to an innate human need to be social..
然而，today it is easier to follow the inclination to fill the silence than ever before.Constantly available personal devices and an unprecedented array of on-demand content available for streaming offer users varied and sophisticated ways to fill their silence.As individuals spend less and less time in silence,他们可能变得越来越不舒服。.
While many participants reported feeling the need to have some sort of audio in the background during their silent moments,其他人报道了这种现象的更强烈的版本：需要填充。所有空虚的瞬间in their lives with some activity to avoid boredom or downtime.这种行为以一种比喻的方式填满了“沉默”-人们使用他们的装置来保持他们的思想不断占据。.
在许多情况下，this desire to kill time contributed to frequent interactions with a device,even when the user had no specific task in mind.内容用户转向的不仅仅是社交媒体，还包括检查电子邮件等活动。天气，or the news.内容本身并不重要，用户觉得不得不做。某物。.
One participant in our Toronto field study was observed compulsively reaching for his phone while he watched a movie..
"I always feel like I should be doing something with my hands.""
另一个实地研究参与者在烹饪时表现出相似的行为。She would perform some cooking task (chopping an onion,filling a pot with water) and then,whenever she needed to wait for something (for example,为了使水沸腾，她会立刻拿出她的iPhone。.
This phenomenon is not limited to Western cultures: our Chinese participants also reported using devices to kill time.一个女人告诉我们她玩了一个WeChat mini game当她通勤上班时，填补空余时间。Another participant told us that he uses the music and video app TikTok for"killing time.""
正如宽范围的流线型内容，很容易添加背景噪声，the constant availability of mental distraction offers an accessible escape from boredom.科技公司从这种行为中受益，并有意地通过运用他们对心理原理的理解来促进这种行为。Users are encouraged to step out of the physical world and back into the digital world using increasingly sophisticated techniques..
也就是说，not all participants in our studies exhibited or reported this seemingly compulsive behavior.有些人承认他们倾向于“fill the silence"in their lives,但他们weren't worried about it.其他人担心，并报告说，他们是trying to be more mindfulin how they use their devices..
"I'm trying to stop filling the bored moment.I'm not just grabbing at the phone without thinking.""
"I feel that I want to put my phone away,在我不经常检查的地方。I feel like I don't have parameters around when I'm using it.我觉得这真的让我的大脑有点煎熬。Because instead of being in the silence of the moment,它充满了噪音，or distraction.""
"With social media,I've deleted it from my phone before and that did help.I put it back though,because I find you just fill it with something else.像，如果我去寻找它或者轻敲它，它就不在那里，然后我会说，好啊，好，maybe I'll play a game,或者我会使用不同的社交媒体应用程序，或者看YouTube视频之类的。""
这种压制沉默的冲动与Vortexphenomenon,which refers to people's lack of control over the amount of time they spend online,due to continuous digital temptations that pull them deeper and deeper into interacting with their devices.当人们觉得需要填满每一个空虚的时刻，他们越来越被他们的设备所吸引，作为满足这一需求的简单方法。.
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