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权威原则

通过 Therese Fessenden2018年2月4日

摘要:提出请求的人的感知高权限状态可以使人们更加符合该请求在UX中应用此原则可以简化用户的决策过程。


Let’s imagine that you’re waiting for a friend outside a restaurantA person wearing a security uniform comes up to you and says, “See that man over there? He’s over-parked, but doesn’t have any changeGo give him a dime.” Would you give him the dime? Statistically speaking, you probably will; 92% of the participants in this study, done by Leonard Bickman in 1974, did然而,当请求者穿着便服时,这个百分比急剧下降到42%(同一个人,不同的装备=影响力的巨大差异。)这是工作中的权威原则。

在他的书中影响:科学与实践,Robert Cialdini确定了六个影响原则:

  1. 回报
  2. Commitment & Consistency
  3. 社会证明
  4. 喜欢
  5. 权威
  6. 缺乏

定义:权威原则是指一个人倾向于遵守权威人士,如政府领导,执法代表,医生,律师,教授和其他不同领域的知名专家。

The authority principle is an example of the human tendency to use判断启发式在这种情况下,隐含的假设是那些处于权威地位的人可以运用更大的智慧和力量,因此,遵守它们将会产生有利的结果。作为人类,我们倾向于做出更容易的决定,而不是准确,更努力的决定。

理解权威原则的来源并不难作为孩子,我们对世界的了解很多来自父母和老师等权威人物例如,如果孩子徘徊在一个非常热的炉灶面上,父母会警告她不要碰到炉子孩子信任成人的推理技巧,并且不会烧伤她的手或者,如果老师说1 + 2 = 3,那么孩子就会信任老师对此事的权威即使是现在,作为成年人,我们也会看到或读到处于权威地位的人,他们的能力会取得很好的成果While we do grow more skeptical as adults, we still tend to consider the judgment of certain authority figures, like scientists, doctors, lawyers, and law-enforcement people, to be more reliable than our own, even on matters that are outside their domain of expertise.  

米尔格拉姆实验

如果没有参考关于该主题的典型社会心理学实验之一,关于权威和服从的文章将是不完整的在Stanley Milgram着名的实验中,参与者被要求对另一个人进行一系列记忆测试,参与者不知道他是研究人员的同盟者 The participant was told to administer a series of electric shocks to the confederate each time the confederate failed to produce a correct answer to the memory task随着测试的进行,冲击电压水平增加(同盟者实际上并没有感到震惊,但是参与者被认为他是。)随着电压的增加,同盟者开始恳求受试者结束冲击,甚至假装无意识 If, at any time, the participants wanted to stop the experiment, a researcher in the room prompted them to continue然后,实际的测试对象将面临是否遵守科学家或结束冲击的冲突不幸的是,65%的参与者最终进入了最高级别的冲击(尽管最高级别被标记为“危险:严重冲击”和“XXX”)。

The Milgram experiment revealed a tendency to rely on authority figures when making decisions, even when those decisions are immoral虽然这个实验在后来的几年里因其欺骗性质而受到抨击,但它使我们能够理解人类的行为以及是什么迫使我们动摇我们的观点和决定。

权威和用户体验

Although obedience to authority can lead to misjudgments and unethical behaviors, it is not always bad: after all, relying on expert opinion is an effective decision-making shortcut in many situations and saves us the work of researching the matter ourselves. 

例如,用户可能必须完成一项复杂的,信息繁重的任务,即比较需要广泛教育或专业发展的领域的产品:金融服务,法律服务或医学在不确定的时候,用户可能会查看这些域中的权威人物,以便为他们的决策提供信息。

UX专业人士可以利用权威原则来提高他们的manbetx官方网站手机版的可信度以下是一些可以增加信任的元素:

  • 处于权威职位的人的照片(或者像穿着权威职位的人一样) - 穿着白大褂的医生或科学家,或穿着西装的律师
  • 权威的象征 - 例如,爱马仕的手杖或工作人员,医学实践的流行标志,或法律导向网站的司法尺度
  • 信誉良好的组织的标志
  • 专家,名人和其他权威人士的报价和认可

用户体验中权威的成功范例

RocketLaywer.com屏幕截图
In this screenshot of RocketLawyer’s site, we see four elements of authority: (1) a hero image featuring an attorney (as stated by the photo’s caption) poised at the computer symbolically waiting to answer the user’s questions; (2) three pictures of lawyers on the staff (and for how long they have been in practice); (3) logos of major news organizations and publications in which the firm was featured; (4) a McAfee logo in the footer, indicating that the site is secure.
PassionPlanner.com屏幕截图
Passion Planner是一家创业计划/组织公司,通过引用Business Insider(专业发展权威)来预测权威他们还通过将他们的评级纳入亚马逊来纳入社交证据。
Elena的菲律宾餐厅屏幕截图
Elena's Restaurant餐厅是位于HI的Waipahu的一家颇受欢迎的菲律宾餐厅和餐饮企业其网站的顶部是Guy Fieri在他的美食网络节目中的大名人代言,而该网站的下半部分最近获得了当地美食评论家的奖项。
NeighborhoodScout.com屏幕截图
NeighborhoodScout.com是一个利用犯罪数据和社区统计数据来通知房地产投资的网站,它通过突出服务的订户来建立权威,其中包括美国联邦机构 - 一个实际的权威。
Fabric8 Labs屏幕截图
Fabric8Labs成功地通过将着名风险投资家马克库班(Mark Cuban)列入其他投资者名单而成为名人代言人。

权威的伦理考量

使用权威原则对您有利并不意味着您可以通过虚假的权威借口欺骗您的客户 There are, after all, ethical standards we should uphold in the field of UX首先,我们应该考虑一下,如果我们在使用权威方面有所帮助和诚实Is it helpful and honest to say that Andrea Bocelli, the famous Italian tenor, endorsed a math-tutoring software? Or would it be helpful and honest to say that a few officers of a police department recommended a catering service to their friends? Even if these endorsements are true, these people are authorities in unrelated fields, and their opinions, although likely to sway our audiences, do not represent true expert assessments for the quality of the corresponding products.

确保我们不通过发布客户端徽标来违反客户机密协议也很重要有时,专有信息和咨询/咨询业务关系可能取决于维护保密协议考虑您的认可和“过去的客户”部分是否包含已同意与您的组织公开关联的公司如果没有,请在主页(或任何页面)上填写其名称之前获得许可。

如果利用黑暗模式或欺骗性技术诱惑,请考虑用户体验中的道德规范:“问问自己,你的技术是否说服用户做一些你不想被说服去做的事情。”

结论

我们可以利用权威原则来帮助减轻决策的压力Persuasion and influence are not only about swaying customers to make decisions the business wants (though that’s certainly part of it); they are also about decreasing the amount of thought, second-guessing, and effort that goes into decisions that users already want to make通过减少做出决策所需的工作量(然后重申该决定),我们可以提高用户信心并增强客户的能力请记住,赋予权力的客户是满意的客户,而快乐的客户则是付费客户。

 

参考

比克曼,L(1974年)制服的社会力量Journal of Applied Social Psychology,4,47-61。