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根据用户研究采取行动

通过 Jakob Nielsenon November 8,2004

Summary:用户研究提供了一个学习机会,可以帮助您了解用户行为,但是你必须解决研究结果和你自己信仰之间的差异。


The good news in user research is that we're building up amassive body of knowledge about user behavior in online systems.当公司不得不猜测网站和内部网的设计时,那些日子早已过去。manbetx官方网站手机版The bad news is that the sheer amount of accumulated research findings can be overwhelming.Even worse?User research won't generate an additional penny of profit unless you understand it and act upon it.

Here's one way of quantifying the amount of current usability knowledge: We've published3326页可用性研究报告.这些报告包含1217个一般设计指南和1961个截图,manbetx官方网站手机版所有这些都有关于具体设计如何帮助或阻碍真实用户的信息。manbetx官方网站手机版其他研究人员也发表报告,你也可能有一个内部可用性小组或者委托顾问研究你感兴趣的问题。

In total,a huge mass of user research.你应该如何处理所有这些发现?

First Steps

用户研究是一个现实检查.它告诉你人们使用电脑时实际发生的事情。You can推测on what customers want,or you can找出.The latter is the more fruitful approach.

Research offers an understanding of how users behave online,是一个坚实的基础上建立一个设计。manbetx官方网站手机版我仍然建议你用户测试你自己的设计:任何时候你有一个新的想法,manbetx官方网站手机版build apaper prototype并且测试它,这样你就不会浪费金钱去实现那些不起作用的想法。但是,if you start with manbetx官方网站手机版design ideas that are based on the actual behavior of real human beings,you'll have considerably fewer usability problems than if you target a manbetx官方网站手机版design at a hypothetical or idealized user.

一开始看到一长串新的研究发现可能会让人难以抗拒。尝试小口处理它们.例如,根据新发现,查看您的主页或典型的内容页面。Print out a copy and circle each manbetx官方网站手机版design element that might violate a design guideline or cause users problems.

Make general issues concreteby applying them to a familiar example.这总是一个建立理解的好方法,可以帮助您在未来的设计项目中。manbetx官方网站手机版

你也可以将研究结果用作检查表:一次浏览一条您自己的设计准则,看看您是否遵manbetx官方网站手机版守。每当你违反了既定的可用性发现,您可以更深入地了解这个发现的底层用户研究,并进一步了解它。有了你的新知识,您可能决定修改您的设计,使其符合用户的典型行为。manbetx官方网站手机版或者,of course,you might disagree with the research findings.

Handling Disagreements

人们不同意一项研究及其结论的主要原因有两个:他们自己的研究显示出一些不同的东西,或者他们的个人观点和偏好不同于研究建议。

If your research findings disagree with published results,你有两个选择。第一,你的研究可能有方法上的缺陷,因此,有必要根据新的研究结果对这项研究进行回顾。There are numerousissues to consider to run a valid user test.第二,it could be that you're dealing with a special case,and your findings actually are different.这种情况确实存在,although exceptions are more rare than people would like to think.

如果你自己的直觉与公布的结果不一致,把它视为一个学习机会,可以提高你未来的洞察力。manbetx官方网站手机版设计不是宗教.You don't have to defend the beliefs of your forefathers to the bitter end.manbetx官方网站手机版Design is a business decision.You should follow the data and do what generates the biggest profits for your company,not what wins manbetx官方网站手机版design awards.

If you disagree strongly,you can always run a study of your manbetx官方网站手机版design to determine whether you are one of those rare exceptions.General usability guidelines typically hold true in about 90% of cases.有许多特殊情况使剩下的10%足够不典型,这样最好的解决方案将是非正常建议。

If you run an online business,you're in the user experience business: all the value flows through a user interface.It's essential to develop the expertise to interpret user research and an understanding of when to run usability studies.This is true even if you're not a usability specialist yourself and never want to personally run a study.你仍然需要知道如何处理这些报告,并使研究结果与你的业务相关。