Facilitation is core to all successfulUX研讨会。然而，促进工作坊可以感到令人生畏，特别是起初。促进什么意味着什么？您作为辅导员的目标是什么？你应该注意什么？这些是自然的，首先要问你作为促进者的旅程。这篇文章通过研讨会促进的基础。
Let’s start with the definition of facilitation.
(Workshop facilitation should not be confused withfacilitationin user research. The latter refers to interacting with the participants during a usability test or some other research activity involving users.)
The role of the facilitator is to plan and lead activities and instruction in order to help the group do their best thinking together. Facilitation does not mean taking charge and dictating the outcome, but rather allowing each participant to contribute fully and equally and enabling a shared, collaborative outcome that the group buys into. Objectivity is key; facilitators must come from a neutral place — stepping back from contributing to focus purely on the group’s process.
Your job as facilitator is not to personally generate a superbly creative idea, nor it is to make the correct decisions. Your job is to have the workshop participants create the best ideas they can and end up with the best possible decisions.
1. Full and equal participation.Facilitators are the protectors of democracy within the group. Their duty is to make sure that each participant feels comfortable contributing. This means creating opportunities and platforms for contributors to generate their own ideas, speak up about their thoughts, and openly discuss their perspectives. This goal can be reached in many ways, most often through thediverge-and-converge technique, where participants think on their own, then share their thoughts with each other through activities lead by the facilitator.
2. Mutual understanding.It is the facilitator’s job to make sure that everyone is on the same page. We most often achieve this goal by establishing a shared language among the group, supported through the创造有形视觉效果(likeempathy mapsandcustomer-journey maps) and artifacts (likepostupsanddot-voting outputs）。
3.包容性和协作决策。The output of a workshop, both tangible (to-do lists and action items) and intangible (shared language and ideas), is only useful if everyone buys into it. This buy-in and accountability comes from participatory decision making —cocreating workshop outputs that everyone can get behind.
4. Shared responsibility.促进者帮助研讨会集团识别谁将负责在讲习班后负责，这种方式是公平和可行的方式。我们的目标是通过活动或谈话，是每个研讨会参与者清楚地了解下一步。这种合作所有权是成功讲习班的重要组成部分，并推动未来的工作。
Always be listening.Aim to be constantly listening with an open, yet discerning mind, as participants share their ideas or thoughts. Then, if needed, guide them towards a better expression that others in the workshop can understand and build on.
创建一个邀请空间。Use your role as facilitator to invite all participants to contribute. Create a space (for example, introduce a break in conversation by asking everyone to pause and think for a moment or move to a postup on the wall) to accommodate people who are naturally quiet and reserved to add their perspectives. Ensure that diverse opinions are being heard, not just contributions from eager or dominant participants. Look for body language or expressions that might indicate that someone wants to speak and invite that person to participate with prompts like “Does anyone else have something to add?”, “Did you have an idea?”, or “You look like you may have something to add.”
Welcome improvisation.有一个给定的便利化和是no one technique will always work. The best activity or tactic depends on time, group dynamics, participant attitudes, and workshop goals. You can (and should) plan ahead, but you always need to be ready to respond to what is happening in the moment. Don’t get too stuck or comfortable doing things a certain way, but rather be ready to see what works and adapt on the go.
对你和你的知识真实。这一原则是两倍：真实地对你是谁以及你所知道的。促进时，您可能会觉得自己需要像陈规定型的促进者人格 - 外向和精力充沛。但是，没有一种人格类型，可以为最好的辅导员。每个辅导员都有自己的风格，从保留起来，以猛烈而直截了当。最好的风格是最真实的，对你是谁。其次，诚实地对你所知道的。您作为辅导员的工作是成为该过程的专家，而不是内容。如果您不知道与车间内容相关的东西，请不要害怕这么说。建议一个可以帮助小组回答手头的问题的过程或活动。
Avoid giving advice.作为促进者，您的目标是尽可能客观。将促进者视为体育比赛中的裁判员，确保规则遵守，所以每个人都有平等的贡献机会。这个职位让您进入房间内的权威地点。如果您与“我会”或“如果我是”，那么“如果我是”，那么研讨会输出和决策将成为您的，而不是集团的咨询。保持任何面向过程的建议，而不是在内容周围，并使用“此时我通常推荐的过程中的这一点”等短语，或者“它可能会有所帮助......”
Embrace constructive conflict.工作场所的冲突是不舒服的。虽然它可能有糟糕的声誉，但通常是必要的，以便建立透明度，信任和最终买入。如果在研讨会中发生冲突，请拥抱它！任何形式的摩擦力只是各种人格和意见的结果。一个研讨会是通过冲突的理想场所，因为这里有能够妥善损失分歧的工具。作为促进者，最好通过冲突而不是避免它。建设性冲突解决可能是协同作用，导致重大突破，团队信任和正向运动。
Each time you facilitate, you have three major tools at your disposal:
Materials.These are the tangible materials you use throughout a workshop. Materials help create artifacts and capture group memory, which is vital in order to achieve our facilitation goals of equal participation and mutual understanding. They often include:
Activities.Thousands of workshop exercises exist. However, few realize that at the core of each of these exercises are the same 7 foundational activities. You can combine, mix, and remix these fundamental activities to create almost any exercise needed. These core activities should be familiar tools in the facilitator’s back pocket.
Techniques.这些是不同的(主要是口头)策略you can use to encourage, intervene, or maneuver conversations with or between participants. They includeintentional silence(to prompt a participant to speak up in order to fill the void), balancing (asking other participants for contrary opinions or ideas), and linking (bringing tangential or unrelated participant comments back to the topic at hand).
The more you facilitate, the more robust your toolkit will become and the more comfortable you will get with the various materials, activities, and techniques. If you are beginning to build a facilitation competency within your organization, consider establishing a communal toolkit that can be a resource for current and future facilitators to use and expand.
There are a lot of variables at hand when you’re facilitating a workshop. The best way to improve your skills and gain confidence is through observation and practice. Observe other facilitators or offer to lend a hand as a cofacilitator. Take note of tactics that work and you would want to incorporate into your own practice.
As you begin facilitating on your own, start small, with low-stress scenarios and peers you feel comfortable with. Once you gain confidence, you can expand your practice into broad, crossdisciplinary workshops with high-visibility outputs.
If you don’t have the opportunity to facilitate in the workplace but want to improve your skills, consider volunteering as a facilitator for a nonprofit you care about. It is the best way to build confidence, learn how to adapt on the fly, and test your skillset in a low-stake environment, all the while contributing to a greater cause.
Kaner, Sam.Facilitators Guide to Participatory Decision-Making。Jossey-Bass, 2014.