侧边栏Jakob Nielsen栏目loyalty on the Internet, August 1997.

Touristsare users who visit your site temporarily but do not really use it. Typically, they only look at one or two pages, after which they move on to another site. This is in contrast to loyal users who visit repeatedly and may look at as many as five pages (in rare cases even more).

If you sell advertising, then you may think that higher hit-rates are a benefit in their own right: after all, more hits equal more eyeballs for the ads on your site, equals higher income. True, but only if you hold CPM constant. Any savvy advertiser will demand a lower CPM (cost per thousand viewers of the ad) if the "eyeballs" are unqualified leads who are at the site by mistake and not potential buyers of the advertised product. The only way to command high CPM is to deliver a narrowly defined set of users who are truly interested in some specific topic. Otherwise, clickthrough will drop like a brick.

The three main types of site tourists are:

  • Lost in the Woods:users who stumble into your site by mistake from a search engine, by following a link from another site, or by typing in an erroneous URL, or by some other means where they thought they were going to some other place than your site. Because search engines are so bad, users frequently follow links by mistake: when they see that they did not get what they wanted, they are out of the site as fast as they can get their mouse to the back button. They are not going to stay around to explore since they are on a mission to find something else. Therefore, it is self-defeating to try to lure users by misleading search terms or links that promise but do not deliver: since users control their own navigation destiny on the Web, they do not patronize sites that trick them.
  • Siteseers谁查看了您的主页(以及可能有几页),因为他们希望查看不同的网站及其设计。如果您是Web设计商店,这些用户是有价值的,但如果您销售小部件,则不会从对页面布局更感兴趣的人中获得太多业务而不是小部件。
  • One-timers谁转到您的网站,以查看它们感兴趣的一页,但不要浏览更多。这些用户可能会向其他人推荐您的网站,并且他们也可能会带来合理的有利印象。即便如此,如果他们没有回来,那么他们显然没有觉得thatgood about you. It is not likely that a one-timer becomes enough of an advocate for your site to actively drives more traffic to you; it is also not likely that a one-timer will ever buy anything from you.

点击在线广告的人,但在看到页面或两项后立即退出这三个类别,具体取决于细节。如果广告是通过承诺没有交付的东西,那么用户误认为是联系,他或她永远不会回来。如果该广告使用户有兴趣查看您的网站设计或具有特殊优惠的一页,那么至少您将产生可能的领先优势,尽管您几乎肯定不会获得任何真正的好处,除非用户感觉足够奖励以继续前进到其他页面和/或后续访问。

The traditional arguments from non-Internet marketing continue to hold: it is almost always much cheaper to retain satisfied customers and turn them into repeat business than it is to attract a new, one-time customer. The first time you do business with somebody, the net result may well be a loss because of the huge cost of attracting new customers and prying them away from the competition. Also, the first order is likely small because the customer wants to test the waters before committing to large deals on an ongoing basis. Keeping the customer in the fold is cheaper than advertising for new customers, and repeat orders are likely be progressively larger. Combine cheaper costs and larger orders and you find that repeat customers generate most of your profits. This has been proven again and again in the "real world" and is almost certainly true on the Internet as well.

(See also:Reduce Bounce Rates: Fight for the Second Click。)