在本文底部下载Jakob的可用性启发式#1的免费海报。

jakob nielsen的第一个ten heuristics— visibility of system status — relates to so much more than user-interface design. At its essence, it is about communication and transparency, which are critical to many aspects of life. People strive for predictability and control, and, in most cases,more information translates to better decision making

无论您在哪里,无论您在做什么,需要一些时刻环顾四周,并注意您周围的各种类型的系统,以及它们如何传达其当前状态。您的手机或笔记本电脑显示电池寿命仍然是多少;您的电子邮件应用程序会告诉您您有多少未读电子邮件;地铁的一个标志表示下一站(或者,如果您错过了最后一个,则在下一场火车到达站之前有多少分钟)。所有这些信息掘金允许您准确评估您与之交互的系统的当前状态。

定义: The visibility of system status refers to how well the state of the system is conveyed to its users. Ideally, systems should always keep users informed about what is going on, through appropriate feedback within reasonable time.

知识就是力量

Only by knowing what the current system status is can you change it — that is, you can overcome the评价海湾并弄清楚接下来需要做的事情,以便到达目标。

例如,当您驾驶汽车时,您需要连续地看到其速度来决定您是否需要更快或慢下来。那些曾经驾驶过车辆被打破的汽车的人可以证明它是非常困难的事实。当发生在我身上时,我觉得我周围的汽车的怜悯,因为我试图保持步伐和盲目地相信他们正在以合理的速度。A lack of information often equates to a lack of control

适当的反馈

每当用户与系统交互时,他们都需要知道交互是否成功。系统是否实际上捕获了该按钮,或者忙于别的东西,它忽略了它吗?该项目是否已添加到购物车?请求经过了吗?(用户拥有这些问题的一个原因是他们已经之前的技术之前烧毁,无法正常工作。但是,即使在免费的错误技术的快乐日到来时,人们仍然会想知道他们是否真的点击或敲击了。)

Appropriate feedback for a user action is perhaps the most basic guideline of user-interface design. It serves to keep users informed of the current status and to allow them to steer the interaction in the right direction, without wasting effort.

一旦用户点击按钮,或者,这种反馈可以像颜色一样简单。progress indicator当过程需要一点时间来完成。这些指标通信系统正在运行,并减少不确定性 - 阻止用户多次点击相同的按钮,因为他们不确定第一次工作是否不确定。

2屏幕截图通过反馈进行通信系统状态的示例
更改颜色并将复选标记添加到选择屏幕上的按钮通信系统已注册用户的选择(左)。进度指标向用户保证更长的等待是正常的,并且系统仍在工作(右)。

在此视频剪辑从我们的移动眼科研究中,用户已单击一个按钮,并不确定新页面是否实际加载,因为没有反馈。空心红色圆圈显示用户在屏幕上固定的位置。我们可以看到她在按钮和屏幕顶部之间来回呼号,其中似乎出现了页面加载的进度指示符,以评估是否发生了任何事情。(在大多数浏览器中,如果它们尚不可见,则鼠标悬停在视频上以显示控件。)

Providing immediate feedback for interactive events allows users to quickly identify the source of错误and fix them as soon as they were made. In fact,immediate feedbackis one of the main benefits of直接操纵, an interaction style in which users can act directly upon different UI objects. In contrast to direct-manipulation UIs, command-line interfaces do not display the current state of the system, nor do they give immediate feedback. Programmers know how difficult it can be to locate the source of an error in an interface which lacks immediate feedback; they often have to resort to tools such as breakpoints and stepping to understand how the state of the system changes with each action specified in their code.

您是否希望您的用户觉得他们正在使用DOS或UNIX?这些古代指挥线UIS和现代GUI设计之间的实际区别不是彩色图标的存在。它是系统状态的可见性。

Screenshot of songs getting reordered using drag and drop for a playlist on the Amazon Prime Music mobile app
iOS上的亚马逊音乐应用程序允许用户直接操作播放列表中的项目顺序。用户始终意识到系统状态,因此可以轻松识别并纠正错误。

Even when users cannot see the effect of an action because the system does not have a screen (like is the case for仅限语音设备如亚马逊回声和谷歌主页),该命令被听到的最低反馈是必不可少的。亚马逊的回声显示设备上的灯环,以指示它目前正在侦听或工作。例如,这种开关类型的指示器与运行定时器不如运行计时器,但至少用户可以放心系统听到命令并首先设置定时器。

Compel Users to Action

Modern systems are often complex, and it is unreasonable to assume that all the variables that describe the state of a system can be communicated to the user. Manybackstage components(例如JavaScript文件正在下载并执行以进行网站工作,对用户有何感兴趣。然而,偶尔的后台方面实际上可以发挥重要作用前台。

例如,采用库存大小的情况。产品可用的库存通常与用户无关,不应显示。然而,有两个例外:

  1. 当股票低下时:如果人们知道只剩下几件物品,他们更有可能立即行动 - 遵循偏见scarcityandsocial proof
  2. When there are no items in stock: This information can save the users the effort of trying to add to cart products that are no longer available. (Losing the immediate order is preferable to失去信誉对于未来的订单,如果用户觉得他们不能相信你,那将永远不会被放置。)
屏幕截图在J.Crew网站上快速查看
J.Crew站点显示通知,即“只剩下剩下的左边!”当用户将鼠标移动到产品的低库存大小上时。一些尺寸已经售罄,因此显示在浅灰色中横出。

Communicating how far away a user currently is from qualifying for free shipping or another type of deal can also encourage additional purchases.

带有1个项目的自然框网站的屏幕截图添加到购物车中
NatureBox.com:页面顶部的横幅传达了用户需要花费多少钱以获得免费送货的数量。

To communicate backstage events that may impact users, you can use either通知或指标Modal dialogsare also used to inform people of state changes that can significantly affect them.

沟通创造了信任

当与一个人的真实关系时,那个人扣留来自美国的信息或单方面做出决定,我们开始失去信任并觉得这种关系不再是平等的。当我们与系统互动时发生同样的事情。

当我们理解系统的状态时,we feel in control— we can rely on the system to act as expected in all circumstances. The predictability of the interaction creates trust not only in the mechanics of the site or the app, but also in thebrand本身。

站点和应用程序应该明确与用户沟通系统的状态是什么— no action with consequences to users should be taken without informing them. When an external event or the passage of time caused a change in the state of the system, explain it in brief but understandable terms.

例如,当用户重新访问先前创建的愿望清单时,应发生什么,现在包含缺货或不再销售的项目?最糟糕的用户体验是如果这些项目从列表中消失,则没有解释原因。屏幕顶部的通知怎么样?这将只是稍微更好,因为它不会有助于用户记住以前在列表中找到的项目以找到合适的替代品。这两种方法都控制了远离用户,并降级信任 - 用户可能会停止依赖愿望列表如果它有时会自行消失。

一个更好的建立信任的方法是明确传达当前系统的状态- 哪些项目不再可用 - 然后允许用户从列表中删除它们,或者使它们可见可见以供将来参考。

Screenshot of out of stock items on wish list at Loft website
Loft.com继续在愿望清单中显示股票商品,具有适当的消息传递,以将项目的状态传送给用户。

结论

系统状态的可见性是一个伟大的用户体验的基本宗旨。在其核心,这种启发式鼓励开放和持续的沟通,这是所有关系的基础 - 无论是人还是设备。无知的用户对系统当前状态无法决定下一步做什么,以实现其目标,也不能弄清楚他们的行为是否有效或者他们犯了错误。不要蒙上眼睛!