虽然世界目前因Covid-19而被锁定,但许多依赖物理空间的企业转向虚拟旅行,为目前无法访问的用户提供空间感。特别是在房地产中,最近有很多重视房屋的虚拟旅游。许多其他类型的业务,如文化机构,大学,婚礼场所,甚至户外景点,都纷纷纷纷举行。

这项技术在背景中慢慢成熟多年,并且许多用户通过Google地图中的街道视图功能等流行示例接触到基本交互范例。

我们进行了一个定性的用16名用户学习,找出现代虚拟旅游的好的,坏的和眩晕的方面。

We tested a variety of websites from industries that use virtual tours: real estate, wedding venues, outdoor adventures (national parks, scuba diving, etc.), cultural institutions (such as museums and art galleries), theme parks, and university campuses (soon to be covered in a separate article). Among all these websites, several types of virtual tour were commonplace:

  • 自由运动3D步行之旅
  • A series of 360° photos linked together (much like Google’s Street View)
  • 360°视频
  • 2D视频之旅提供了一个带有的导游(但非交氮物)

VIDEO: Artland offers a 3D gallery tour that enables users to move relatively freely through the virtual space. This type of tour had the most coverage, but still had fixed points where 360°图像被拍摄。

梵蒂冈的虚拟巡回赛只提供每间客房的单个360度照片
梵蒂冈博物馆的虚拟旅行提供单身360 每间客房照片,但在地板上有箭头图标的客房之间的联系。
National Marine Sanctuaries offered 360-degree (non-interactive) videos
The National Marine Sanctuaries offers video tours shot in 360 °, so the user can pan around as the video plays but cannot move independently.

虚拟巡视通常用于稍后在过程中检查详细信息

在我们的研究中,用户经常注意到在提供它们的网站上存在虚拟之旅,并且使用的短语“如果I were interested, they offer a virtual tour, which is nice.” While the positive sentiment toward the option to take a virtual tour was fairly consistent, many users then went about their business without interacting with the tour, demonstrating that they were not actually very interested (and further proving one of the first rules of UX — “不要听客户,观察他们的行为”). Indeed, in many of the test sessions, users did not interact with the virtual tours until later in their visit on the site or when directly instructed to open the tour by the study facilitator. (A熟练的辅导员将提示参与者仅在任务结束时使用兴趣的特征,以避免偏见。)

事实上,特别是当任务涉及收集相应的决定的信息时,例如购买房屋,预订婚礼场地,或选择大学,参与者选择与标准的照片画廊,文字描述,甚至在使用之前互动的视频旅游互动3D虚拟旅行。他们的评论表明,他们预计虚拟旅行需要努力使用,并且他们宁愿首先查看照片,以便在投资虚拟之旅之前才能决定属性,艺术品或物理空间是否有趣。因此,就像这种复杂的功能的情况一样,用户正在做一个(无意识)的虚拟巡回赛的成本效益分析,称重预期互动成本against the extra information delivered by the tour. A study participant summed this up well and said:

“I don't see a point of just the 3D tour without photos — [photos] are primary and [a 3D tour] is secondary”

这种偏好的照片作为初始接触点是由于两个因素 - (1)照片画廊可以快速刷新,在短时间内看到空间内的各种景观,(2)照片提供了一定程度的照片直接访问对于某些细节(因为人们不需要走过整个房子来看看一个特定的卧室)。作为一项研究参与者把它放了,

"The photos are like an advertisement to entice me to go in. If I take the tour, I'm investing a lot more time, so it's good for looking at all the nooks and crannies. The 3D tour is when I start to fall in love and want to see the details.”

然而,所有参与者都指出,一旦他们达到了他们想要详细的决策的决策中,一旦虚拟巡回赛就得出了真正的地位,疣和所有人的照片。几个用户指出(特别是在房地产或租赁活动空间),仍然具有专业设备的照片可以相当误导 - 使空间看起来更大,更迷人,或者具有比现实更好的光。一个用户解释:

“I do like that it allows me to move around freely in the home, so I can see the spatial relationships. This gives me a much better idea what it’s actually like in, say, a bedroom, because seeing it in this 3D tour, the room looks much smaller than it did in the [still] photos. If you get the right camera lens and angle [with a still camera], you can make a room seem much larger than it really is.”

Real-estate and event-planning users often sought out virtual tours to check on details such as:

  • The overall flow of the space, from room to room
  • 每个房间有多大
  • 窗户,地板和冠模板等细节的状况
  • 设备的类型和条件
  • The number of power outlets in a room
  • 窗户的光线和景观的质量
  • How many people could comfortably fit in a space
  • 什么类型的家具可以适合以及如何安排

虚拟旅游用户渴望专家指导

该研究中的许多用户也希望传统,叙述的2D视频作为次要步骤(在观看照片库之间进行3D Tour)给他们一个引导,专家演练,并让他们对空间兴奋。几个用户指出,观看视频涉及低努力,但提供了类似的好处,以了解空间的流动并进入一些细节。他们指出,专家指南(如房地产经纪人,婚礼计划,博物馆,博物馆或公园游侠)可以在适当的时刻提供有用的信息 - 通常是用户甚至不知道要问的事情。

This desire forcredible, expert guidance在所有类型的虚拟旅行中普遍存在 - 人们希望拥有专业知识的人分享有关家庭,场地,艺术品或国家公园的关键细节,而不是自行探索。

表面级快乐快速消失,用户继续前进

While many of the visually impressive virtual tours elicited a substantial wow factor in study participants, the最初的deligh.快速消退。许多用户惊呼,“哦,这太酷了”只在关闭旅游之前只秒,然后进入别的东西,例如照片或预先录制的视频。

The quick dissipation ofsuperficial delighT在休闲旅游最突出 - 国家公园,艺术画廊和博物馆,动物园,旅游景点以及梵蒂冈或白金汉宫等文化机构。耸耸肩和减少的订婚迅速兴奋地追随初始兴奋。

休闲旅游,were参与最长的是那些限制用户互动成本的人,并提出了有些导游或策划的体验。这些往往是360°视频或照片,提供了大量叙述(在关键上下段时刻呈现的文字音频声叹或书面文本)。

哈利波特游乐园的虚拟巡演不是非常乐于乐于生意
环球影城哈利波特的巫术世界在一个用户中引发了短暂的喜悦,迅速变得无聊并继续前进。

Moving Within the Space Is Slow and Effortful

遇到的最大问题之一是通过虚拟空间缓慢而困难的运动;特别是令人难以置信的努力。例如,移动设备用户“走进浴室”虚拟房子之旅,令人沮丧地试图转向另一个房间。他指出,“让我转身离开[这个房间],这是8拇指[指的是刷手势he needed to turn 180°] […] Which is fine, but to explore a whole house in this kind of model is a little frustrating.”

A virtual tour image of a bathroom proved difficult to turn around
A user noted his frustration with how much effort it was to simply turn around and leave a room; he said “This took 8 thumbs [swipes] just to turn around.”

In many ways, this experience resembles the crude 3D video games of the 1990s — in fact, several participants compared virtual tours to the 1993 video game MYST. While视频游戏已进展从那时起,虚拟旅行仍然被困在一个非常相似的交互范式中。L.oading times are slow,具有360°“覆盖范围”的斑点的数量通常是有限的,并且移动速度(转动和前进或后退)是有限的,以确保用户没有给出眩晕。

在物理空间中,用户可以(无意识地)选择他们扭转头部的速度和步行速度。这感冒了“叫做”第六种“所谓的”第六种“,或者意识到自己的身体位置和空间运动的能力。现代视频游戏提供有限,但仍然能够通过公共双控控制系统控制移动速度的能力(左侧操纵杆用于移动空间,控制摄像机角度的正确操纵杆)。操纵杆从中心移动有多远控制运动的快速。尽管这个过程比快速转动一个人的头部更具意识,但它仍然是一个相对地直观的设计。即使是移动游戏,如Fortnite也可以使用使用Dual-Joystick设置的虚拟版本通过3D空间移动字符的可用控制。然而,虚拟旅游似乎卡在一个过时的控制范式中。

然而,改变平移敏感性不是答案。在驾驶速度较高的旅游中,用户不喜欢抽搐,感到头晕,失去控制。困扰使用的虚拟旅游的问题AR互动模型,利用移动设备的陀螺仪跟踪用户在太空中的位置并巡回巡回演出 - 所有参与者都会将这种经验视为恶心,抽搐,并抱怨“大猩猩臂”(疲劳远离保持一只手臂)。

Poor Wayfinding

另一个主要问题与之相关导航和Wayfinding。用户经常抱怨他们不确定他们目前在哪里(即,哪个specific他们正在观看的房间)以及其他房间在附近。虽然大多数参与者很快就可以了解共同点意义员that indicated that you could move to a different perspective spot (a circle or arrow superimposed on the ground were reasonably clear), they often didn’t know what room they would end up in if they clicked that icon. Even more to the point, when multiple arrows appeared near one another (as was common on tours hastily adapted to mobile devices), the clarity of the signifier was reduced.

The Google Maps tour of the Van Gogh museum had too many navigation arrows superimposed on top of one another
阿姆斯特丹梵高博物馆的移动虚拟游览在小空间内显示了太多导航箭头,并困惑了几位参与者。这次旅行还遭受了对移动用户的令人耳目叹意,摇摇欲坠的体验,因为它使用移动设备的位置来控制相机。我们所有的学习参与者都会减少这方面。

Some tours solved this wayfinding problem by labeling each arrow with the room it led to. This approach worked well for tours that only had one 360ᵒ image per room; however, for virtual tours offering a relatively free movement within the space, it would be deeply unwise to have that many labeled arrows. When free movement is enabled, place the text label for room names so that it is not in the way ( e.g., on thresholds between rooms).

Zillow的3D Home Tours在导航箭头上提供清晰的文本标签。
Zillow’s 3D tour of homes featured text labels telling users which room they were currently viewing and which rooms they could “walk to” from there. A filmstrip-style navigation component along the bottom of the screen allowed users to teleport to other rooms throughout the house.

此外,移动到一个特定的房间通常是一个slow affair. Many virtual tours force users into a linear-access paradigm that mimics physically walking through the space and going from one room to the next. While that’s useful when “getting the vibe” and understanding the flow of a space, if you find yourself on the third floor and wish to jump back to the basement to double-check something, direct navigation would be very helpful.

有些旅行使用户能够从空间的一部分传送到另一个部分。一种方法是filmstrip-stylegallery of labeled images at the bottom of the screen to allow for faster access to specific rooms. Others offered a birds-eye floorplan view or a 3D dollhouse view that allowed for zoomed-out context and fast navigation. Still, these solutions were plagued by buggy, stuttering performance, and users often became disoriented and lost their spatial awareness when zooming in or out of these high-level views. The filmstrip-style navigation was frequently ignored; many of our participants interacted with it only after being asked about it (at the very end of a task or session, so as to not prime the user beforehand).

视频:TASSPORT虚拟旅游提供的娃娃屋视图引发了许多用户的初始高兴的回复,但是在空间内导航有点令人困惑的方法。通常,在从娃娃屋视图中切换到标准游览视图时,用户将直接传送墙壁,并需要几秒钟以在空间上定向。

“比现实更好”的机会

在许多方面,虚拟旅游遭受了如此令人羞耻的基本互动问题是令人遗憾的,因为这些旅游有一个巨大的机会,超越了一个亲自访问。用户经常希望巡回赛将揭示重要的上下文相关细节(如房间规模或最近更新),如经验丰富的房地产经纪人或导游可能。

虽然一些旅游提供了测量工具,但它们困扰着令人沮丧的mode changes,可怜的图标意小器,并要求令人沮丧的精度。测量工具使用户在虚拟空间中点击一系列点,以测量它们之间的距离;但是,为了获得准确的测量,用户必须非常准确地点击 -a nearly impossible feat on a mobile deviceand still very difficult on a桌面电脑用鼠标。Users often bemoaned that the tool should provide basic dimensions of the room (e.g., ceiling height, room dimensions)by default,不需要用户完成所有工作!

使用测量工具的虚拟巡视很难使用
Matterport虚拟巡回赛:一项研究参与者试图测量窗户之间的空间宽度努力在虚拟测量磁带的开始和结束点处恰好定位虚拟测量磁带。

虽然所有用户在虚拟巡视的每个房间都没有完全普遍的信息列表,但是特定于域的主题易于识别。家庭买家想知道房间的大小,电源网点的数量,隔热的声音如何,家电的品牌(和年龄)等等。这些规划婚礼想知道有多少人可以在一顿饭中舒适地适应一顿饭,有多少人合理地适合舞池,在白天和晚上的空间看起来像什么。几乎访问博物馆和文化机构的人们想要一些关于他们所看到的信息以及为什么重要的信息。为了真正的虚拟旅游better than reality,应默认提供这些所需的细节。

这些虚拟旅游的用户渴望一个指导,专家LED体验 - 不是霸道的音频叙述,但有周到的细节揭示了按需。例如,一个虚拟艺术廊专注于一件艺术 - 而不是基于3D空间的方法,它提供了一个只有一幅画的互动之旅,放大了各种零件,并提供有关笔触的专家信息,符号主题the painting, and how the painting related to the artist’s life and other works. This example demonstrates that moving in space is not a precondition of an effective tour — rather, what makes a “tour” valuable to users is rich detail and meaningful context.

Frida Kahlo的自画像与猴子的特写包括关于这幅画的其他文本细节
谷歌的艺术和文化网站提供了Frida Kahlo的导游Self-Portrait with Monkey。The tour focused not on a virtual gallery space, but on high-resolution images of the painting, zooming in to various parts of the work and providing textual guidance on the significance of those aspects that would likely be missed by viewers without art-history expertise. This tour was among the best-received cultural or discretionary-activity tours in our study.

Summary

Covid-19锁定已强制许多业务,依赖于物理位置的访问以快速调整。不幸的是,大多数虚拟旅游软件遵循1990年代的视频游戏交互范式,很大程度上对许多用户都不满足。尽管如此,还有机会通过专注于指导,专业知识驱动的旅游,而不是对3D空间的自由形式探索来提供有价值的体验。虚拟旅行应该是用户高质量静止摄影,书面描述,甚至传统视频之旅的用户的二级或高等教育资料来源。