在我们研究图像，GIF和视频辅助学习, we observed that small details in those visuals can impact users’ perception of the content and even their success. Sometimes, seemingly minor details disrupted focus and sparked a short rant. Other times, it was only when asked what they thought about an image or video at the end of the task that participants mentioned the background music, the intonation of the narrator’s voice, or the style of the prop as reasons for finding the video boring or overly promotional.
Consider how exactly people will use the image or video and what information they need from it. That should drive what the visual shows and from what perspective. For instructional content, you may need to从用户的角度看出东西：这个过程通过用户的眼睛看起来像什么？
People’s快速关注发动机，即使它们最初对视频内容感兴趣。我们的许多学习参与者定期徘徊在视频控制上，而视频正在播放以检查剩下多少时间。这种行为通常在视频中开始大约30秒 - 大概是当观众决定是否继续观看时。
Long videos, particularly those with lengthy introductions, were a common complaint among the self-proclaimed video haters: “I don’t really like watching videos, I don’t know why that is. I feel like they go on forever.” Another stated: “I feel like videos take forever to be like, ‘First, open the door.’ … They don't need to be that drawn out.”
When a video answered participants’ question quickly and clearly, it was appreciated. Sure, people would often then stop playing the video before it ended, but because it was a good experience, they were more likely to watch other videos on the site or at least leave with a good overall impression regarding the helpfulness of the content.
Keep Videos Short
当视频充当过程概述而不是教程时，使其尽可能短在30秒内is a good goal. For instance, one user in ourSeniors study早餐看食谱。在美味的网站上，他观看了一个伴随着repe配方的视频，并评论了“这是一个非常好的视频。他们足够短。整个食谱，他们在不到30秒的时间内显示，然后你可以找到更多细节，如果你愿意。“30秒的视频运行良好，因为它旨在吸引人们并迅速总结食谱步骤，而不是提供一步逐步的指南。
在适当的时候，几个简短的视频将比单个长的视频更好因为用户只能播放他们最感兴趣的人。例如，当被要求研究共同基金和交换交易资金（ETF）之间的差异时，Vanguard网站上的参与者能够观看提供的视频他们认为最好回答他们的问题。因为这款视频被视为有帮助，大多数参与者最终观看了所有5个（或者至少，每个视频的一部分 - 一些视频在1:30后停止，甚至在仅仅20秒之后，一旦用户觉得他们觉得他们的答案）。完成后任务后，一名参与者决定演奏最后一个视频，说“我只是要完成它，因为这是非常有用的。”之后，她评论了，“每个视频都很短，我喜欢。即使它们的总量超过10分钟的标记，我也会单独倾听他们所有人。“（她之前曾表示，“超长”视频有10分钟或更长时间。）
On the other hand, for complicated processes like troubleshooting or napkin folding, where people will likely follow along, a slow pace (and thus a longer video) may be better. When the video progressed too quickly, users had to constantly pause it or rewind to catch up with the steps, and so they appreciated videos that were slow enough that they could keep pace. Of course, everybody is different, and it’ll be difficult (perhaps impossible) to find a speed that pleases everyone. For this reason, it’s ideal to alsoprovide images and text for step-by-step processes so people can follow each step at their own pace。One participant literally said, “What I want is this video, but per step. That would be great.” (Note: GIFs were effective for quick animated instructions broken out into individual steps — participants liked that, unlike for videos, they didn’t have to commit to playing the GIFs.)
矛盾的是，即使他们在视频中发抖的注意力，许多人都对小型甚至微不足道的致力于 - 细节，这些细节有时会分散一个视频的主要目的。
For example, when watching a video describing how to set up a charcoal grill for grilling, a participant paused and rewound it to point out something that was in the actor’s hair in a single overhead shot: “Oh, whoa. Let me go back a little bit … Check it out, there’s something in her hair right there. … I wonder what it is.” She later added, “It’s a little distracting with that dot on her head.” (The same issue would also certainly occur for an image as well, though a single photo is often easier to edit than every frame within a video, and so these distractors are more easily avoided.)
While these types of small accidents can be hard to catch, other details, like the选择道具，很容易控制。对于这个视频，几位参与者评论说，他们不确定是否仅应用于视频中使用的含量含有的步骤，并且他们希望所示的烤架常见的烧烤风格。
这tone of background musicfor a video is another detail that can affect users. For example, one participant was looking through the help and support documentation for a meeting scheduling tool, Calendy, and watched the video provided for learning about managing availability. Afterward, she commented that the tool seemed easy to use, but the video appeared to be “less of a how-to, and more of a sales-type of video.” Part of that perception was because: “that little, do-do-do-dooo thing [background music] is a little, I don't want to say childish, but it feels cheeky or something. And the person talking — I know they're trying to be helpful, but it comes off as, 'Hey idiot, you can do this by …' almost like, infomercially.”
那说，小细节也可以高度赞赏。这same user who complained about the speck of dust visible in the actor’s hair also commented that she appreciated the actor was wearing Converse sneakers, because they “make [the actor] hipper, more approachable, not a dad-bod thing.” Similarly, a study participant said that one main reason he enjoyed watching Tasty recipe videos on Facebook was because “the guy’s voice [at the end] was very appealing. I would sometimes watch it just to hear him say, ‘Oh yeah’ because you knew he was going to enjoy whatever he was eating.”
一致性- 在整个视频或一系列图像中保持相同的（或至少，非常相似的）相机角度，并使用相同的道具，演员和背景 - 是人们感激的另一个细节（毫不奇怪，因为一致性有助于他们专注于视频中的重要点而不是被道具的新颖性分散注意力。For example, a participant on the Cooking Channel’s site stated that she liked the images on a page about charcoal grills because they had “continuity, in terms of like, all the pictures are of the same grill, with the same person, with the same chimney.”
即使视频旨在是信息或教学，它也必须仍然是娱乐和理智地管理观众的关注。快速到达主点并保持整体长度短 - 或将主题突破到几个短点中 - 对视频内容至关重要。
Details such as continuity and consistency, the intonation of the narrator’s voice, props, background music, and basically anything that is visible in the video or graphic must be scrutinized and designed thoughtfully, or they can easily distract users and change their perception of the content.
Keep the users’ goal in mind. For graphics that people will be referencing while they complete a step-by-step process, ensure that the camera angle shows what users will see, from their perspective, as they follow along. Images or GIFs with text instructions per step are easier to consume than videos, because they allow people to go at their own pace and fully understand one step before being rushed to the next.