在我们研究图像,GIF和视频辅助学习, we observed that small details in those visuals can impact users’ perception of the content and even their success. Sometimes, seemingly minor details disrupted focus and sparked a short rant. Other times, it was only when asked what they thought about an image or video at the end of the task that participants mentioned the background music, the intonation of the narrator’s voice, or the style of the prop as reasons for finding the video boring or overly promotional.

在本文中,我们讨论了多媒体的细节作为更广泛信息的一部分图形和视频应该有助于且有意义,而不是纯粹的装饰

没有精神旋转

Consider how exactly people will use the image or video and what information they need from it. That should drive what the visual shows and from what perspective. For instructional content, you may need to从用户的角度看出东西:这个过程通过用户的眼睛看起来像什么?

例如,一个研究参与者努力完成特定的餐巾纸折叠,即使在几次观看视频后,也通过逐步的图像库版本的指令观看。在尝试折叠布卫生间时,她经常在桌子周围旋转餐巾纸,然后重新探测前一步或移动到下一个。当她最终找到了一个视频时,她可以遵循成功的时候,她解释道:“它帮助了很多,因为[视频]从我的角度来看,而不是我不得不镜像某人。她的手就在这里,而不是他们来找我。“

2 screenshots showing images with opposite camera angles.
左:从观察者的角度查看餐巾纸意味着用户需要镜像所显示的步骤,以便完成它们,这使得任务更加困难。右:相机角度匹配用户在完成步骤时会看到的内容,因此更容易遵循。

精神旋转采取认知努力并且可以通过选择最佳摄像机角度来避免用于演示过程。如果用户仅需要了解物体(例如烟囱起动器)是什么,那么从观察者的角度显示它就足够了。但是,对于逐步处理,从DOER的角度拍摄步骤允许用户容易地复制这些步骤。

谈到现在

People’s快速关注发动机,即使它们最初对视频内容感兴趣。我们的许多学习参与者定期徘徊在视频控制上,而视频正在播放以检查剩下多少时间。这种行为通常在视频中开始大约30秒 - 大概是当观众决定是否继续观看时。

Long videos, particularly those with lengthy introductions, were a common complaint among the self-proclaimed video haters: “I don’t really like watching videos, I don’t know why that is. I feel like they go on forever.” Another stated: “I feel like videos take forever to be like, ‘First, open the door.’ … They don't need to be that drawn out.”

虽然文本允许用户扫描或以自己的节奏读取,视频进入设定的速度和持有人们注意的任何时间都很困难。(这是我们建议使用视频作为辅助信息来源的主要原因,而不是替代文本。)一个参与者任务,了解如何更换空气净化器上的过滤器,清晰地显示:“大约是视频中途的一半......我不再关心了这么多。“

When a video answered participants’ question quickly and clearly, it was appreciated. Sure, people would often then stop playing the video before it ended, but because it was a good experience, they were more likely to watch other videos on the site or at least leave with a good overall impression regarding the helpfulness of the content.

Keep Videos Short

当视频充当过程概述而不是教程时,使其尽可能短在30秒内is a good goal. For instance, one user in ourSeniors study早餐看食谱。在美味的网站上,他观看了一个伴随着repe配方的视频,并评论了“这是一个非常好的视频。他们足够短。整个食谱,他们在不到30秒的时间内显示,然后你可以找到更多细节,如果你愿意。“30秒的视频运行良好,因为它旨在吸引人们并迅速总结食谱步骤,而不是提供一步逐步的指南。

在适当的时候,几个简短的视频将比单个长的视频更好因为用户只能播放他们最感兴趣的人。例如,当被要求研究共同基金和交换交易资金(ETF)之间的差异时,Vanguard网站上的参与者能够观看提供的视频他们认为最好回答他们的问题。因为这款视频被视为有帮助,大多数参与者最终观看了所有5个(或者至少,每个视频的一部分 - 一些视频在1:30后停止,甚至在仅仅20秒之后,一旦用户觉得他们觉得他们的答案)。完成后任务后,一名参与者决定演奏最后一个视频,说“我只是要完成它,因为这是非常有用的。”之后,她评论了,“每个视频都很短,我喜欢。即使它们的总量超过10分钟的标记,我也会单独倾听他们所有人。“(她之前曾表示,“超长”视频有10分钟或更长时间。)

Vanguard网页的屏幕截图,有5个视频缩略图。
Vanguard网站提供5次短(3-4分钟)视频,回答有关ETF的各种最佳问题。这些简短的视频对我们研究的参与者吸引人,因为每个人都代表了一个小的时间承诺 - 大多数参与者最终都会出现所有。

On the other hand, for complicated processes like troubleshooting or napkin folding, where people will likely follow along, a slow pace (and thus a longer video) may be better. When the video progressed too quickly, users had to constantly pause it or rewind to catch up with the steps, and so they appreciated videos that were slow enough that they could keep pace. Of course, everybody is different, and it’ll be difficult (perhaps impossible) to find a speed that pleases everyone. For this reason, it’s ideal to alsoprovide images and text for step-by-step processes so people can follow each step at their own pace。One participant literally said, “What I want is this video, but per step. That would be great.” (Note: GIFs were effective for quick animated instructions broken out into individual steps — participants liked that, unlike for videos, they didn’t have to commit to playing the GIFs.)

细节可以分散注意力

矛盾的是,即使他们在视频中发抖的注意力,许多人都对小型甚至微不足道的致力于 - 细节,这些细节有时会分散一个视频的主要目的。

For example, when watching a video describing how to set up a charcoal grill for grilling, a participant paused and rewound it to point out something that was in the actor’s hair in a single overhead shot: “Oh, whoa. Let me go back a little bit … Check it out, there’s something in her hair right there. … I wonder what it is.” She later added, “It’s a little distracting with that dot on her head.” (The same issue would also certainly occur for an image as well, though a single photo is often easier to edit than every frame within a video, and so these distractors are more easily avoided.)

截图的视频暂停,显示了演员的头发中的白色灰尘,在视频框的左下方可见。
家居仓库网站上的一个参与者被演员的头发出现的斑点分散了分散注意力(即使它脱离焦点!)在开销镜头期间,展示了如何在格栅中设置木炭。

While these types of small accidents can be hard to catch, other details, like the选择道具,很容易控制。对于这个视频,几位参与者评论说,他们不确定是否仅应用于视频中使用的含量含有的步骤,并且他们希望所示的烤架常见的烧烤风格。

tone of background musicfor a video is another detail that can affect users. For example, one participant was looking through the help and support documentation for a meeting scheduling tool, Calendy, and watched the video provided for learning about managing availability. Afterward, she commented that the tool seemed easy to use, but the video appeared to be “less of a how-to, and more of a sales-type of video.” Part of that perception was because: “that little, do-do-do-dooo thing [background music] is a little, I don't want to say childish, but it feels cheeky or something. And the person talking — I know they're trying to be helpful, but it comes off as, 'Hey idiot, you can do this by …' almost like, infomercially.”

截图的视频暂停,显示了演员的头发中的白色灰尘,在视频框的左下方可见。
日历Help Center包括具有“厚颜无耻”的视频,背景音乐和过度百分比的叙述,使视频展示了一个参与者的评论,这些评论专注于销售软件而不是教学如何使用它。

那说,小细节也可以高度赞赏。这same user who complained about the speck of dust visible in the actor’s hair also commented that she appreciated the actor was wearing Converse sneakers, because they “make [the actor] hipper, more approachable, not a dad-bod thing.” Similarly, a study participant said that one main reason he enjoyed watching Tasty recipe videos on Facebook was because “the guy’s voice [at the end] was very appealing. I would sometimes watch it just to hear him say, ‘Oh yeah’ because you knew he was going to enjoy whatever he was eating.”

一致性- 在整个视频或一系列图像中保持相同的(或至少,非常相似的)相机角度,并使用相同的道具,演员和背景 - 是人们感激的另一个细节(毫不奇怪,因为一致性有助于他们专注于视频中的重要点而不是被道具的新颖性分散注意力。For example, a participant on the Cooking Channel’s site stated that she liked the images on a page about charcoal grills because they had “continuity, in terms of like, all the pictures are of the same grill, with the same person, with the same chimney.”

2图片库的屏幕截图,显示一直拍摄的图像。
烹饪频道:图片画廊appreciated for being consistent, by using the same camera angle, grill, and other major props throughout.

Conclusion

即使视频旨在是信息或教学,它也必须仍然是娱乐和理智地管理观众的关注。快速到达主点并保持整体长度短 - 或将主题突破到几个短点中 - 对视频内容至关重要。

Details such as continuity and consistency, the intonation of the narrator’s voice, props, background music, and basically anything that is visible in the video or graphic must be scrutinized and designed thoughtfully, or they can easily distract users and change their perception of the content.

视频,动画GIF,图像和其他多媒体组件不应添加为“绒毛”或“Jazz Up”一个网站,应用程序或其他媒体。它们是用户体验元素,必须掌握,设计和生产,并以可用性和互动而设计。

Keep the users’ goal in mind. For graphics that people will be referencing while they complete a step-by-step process, ensure that the camera angle shows what users will see, from their perspective, as they follow along. Images or GIFs with text instructions per step are easier to consume than videos, because they allow people to go at their own pace and fully understand one step before being rushed to the next.