Stories are a natural part of our lives. We tell, read, and listen to stories every day — from listening to the news to recounting the events of the day. These stories are our way of remembering and communicating experiences.

许多心理学实验都很好地证明了故事对人类记忆的影响。第一个实验是1932年著名的“鬼魂之战”实验,参与者阅读一个他们不熟悉的美洲土著故事。这项研究以及其他许多研究表明,人们的记忆是更好的,当事实放在一起,在一个连贯的故事,而不是当他们被单独提出,彼此孤立。而且,尽管人们往往会记住故事的要点,但他们也会调整细节,以符合自己先前的知识和经验。(我们在课堂上进一步讨论故事对人类记忆的影响The Human Mind and Usability.)

The same applies to stories in user experience. When used to their full potential, UX stories create a shared vocabulary, add to the organizational memory, focus the team on a common goal, ignite the audience’s imagination, and persuade stakeholders — ultimately leading to buy-in. This article discusses how to use storytelling in user experience.

什么是用户体验故事?

定义:UX故事是来自用户的角度的事件的帐户;故事中的事件显示了体验的演变。

成功制作的故事应该引人注目,唤起情绪,超越文化和专业知识。它可以描述目前的,如此情况,或者将来设定。

UX-Story Components

The structure and components of user-experience stories are not far removed from fairy tales, classical theater, or box-office films. According to Aristotle, successful drama is composed of six primary elements: plot, character, thought, diction, music, and spectacle. These elements remain essential to modern day’s storytelling and create the infrastructure for the components mentioned below. (While music is optional in most corporate environments, we recommend a bit of spectacle for your story presentation, maybe in the form of a prop or two.)

A UX story has the following components:

  • User.Compelling stories must have a clear, fleshed-out main character (or, in some cases, multiple characters), with whom the audience can empathize. Imagine a main character who is hard of hearing. Framing your story from this perspective allows your audience to relate to your user— for example, by considering a parallel visual experience for aspects that would have been only audible.
  • User’s goal and motivation.目标建立了对手头任务的清晰理解,而用户的动机则帮助受众看到用户行为和决策背后的含义。例如,在一个关于一个青少年的用户体验故事中,她的目标(例如下载一个新的应用程序)和她的动机(可能是社会接受度或交朋友)一样有价值。
  • 上下文。上下文是UX故事发生的设置(时间和地点)。为故事的环境提供了一个环境的理解,在设计的经历适合的地方。这种背景也可以充当可以构建剧情的起点 - 它可以是角色必须面临的故事冲突或障碍物的来源他的目标。正确的上下文使您的受众提供了混凝土的东西。例如,想象一个忙碌的父亲。如果这个角色包围着吠狗,全手和生病的婴儿等上下文,那么该团队可以了解它必须设计的环境:混乱,高压力,短时间内。
  • Plot.情节沿着时间线描述一系列事件。通常,当主角(用户)走向故事的高潮时,这些事件会造成紧张和危机。
  • Insight.虽然前四个组件很简单,但洞察力是讲故事者必须将他们的理解插入并与观众通信情况的重要性。当观众感受到某些东西处于危险或主角的核心价值被中断时,洞察力可能会变得情绪化。洞察力往往是故事的“AHA时刻” - 球队不了解的痛苦点,但已经通过研究发现,或者设计突破将改变用户未来的经历。
  • Spectacle.Spectacle refers to the visual portion of the story. This could be props, drawn illustrations, or video. The spectacle usually makes the story more memorable and enjoyable, and keeps the audience interested and involved.

什么是好的用户体验故事

用户和她的目标是最基本的有限公司mponents of a story, upon which empathy, context, conflict, plot, and insight can be built. A good UX story should be simple, yet engaging enough and accessible to a range of audiences: young to old, beginner to expert. Tell your story to a 16-year-old, then a 60-year-old; do they both understand the characters and plot? Do they both stay engaged throughout? If not, work to make your story more attainable and compelling.

成功的故事可以通过以下方式使设计和开发周期有益:

  • 将用户保留在对话的中心。Make sure the point of view and focus never shift from the user.
  • 讨论主题您可能无法以直接方式解决.故事让您以中立的方式提出有争议的主题。
  • 抽象设计概念的具体化。通过将这些元素绑在一个故事中,您可以创建一个允许对换句话难以掌握概念的共享理解的上下文。
  • 促进理解和记忆。正如本文开头所讨论的,故事可以提高回忆信息的能力。
  • 为说服阶段设置舞台和呼叫采取行动。When an audience is invested in the story, characters and plot will be more persuasive and more likely to generate buy-in.

UX故事与场景,用例或故事板

很可能您已经在工作中使用了多种类型的故事讲述方式—用例、场景、故事板—来说明用户体验的特定方面。尽管这些都是有效和有价值的,但它们与本文中建议的用户体验故事类型不同。

用例,场景和故事板专注于开发正确的行动序列来捕获活动,通常为了概述要求。他们的主要目的是描述。更常见的是,这些专注于技术,而不是在用户身上。用例,场景和故事板经常缺乏角色开发,情节和用户目标 - 尽管它们的范围和粒度可能会有所不同。

相反,用户体验故事是特定的;他们有德veloped characters, context, and well-formed plots. The audience leaves with a clear understanding of the user’s goals and motivations. While other methods of storytelling are valuable, these stories — ones that communicate the value of the experience to its users — will be the focus of this article. Specificity means memorability (which is also why personas are more memorable than abstractions such as audience segmentation profiles).

Using UX Stories Throughout the Design Process

Stories can be written, drawn, spoken, or recorded. They are a powerful tool throughout multiple stages of the design process and can serve accomplish each of the following goals:

  • 总结用户研究。定性用户研究由故事制成。这些故事自然存在于观察中,调查数据,访谈,客户服务成绩单,研究说明和/或对话。目标是利用这些碎片并建立在它们上,直到您有一个引人注目的叙述,可以准确地捕获从您的研究中收集的见解。用于总结用户研究的故事应该:
    • 说明用户的痛点。
    • Reflect the current experiences of your real users, and not ideal experiences that you may want for them (in other words, the point of view should be “as-is” instead of “to-be”).
    • 桥接多个数据来源。
    • Avoid prescribing a design solution.
  • Generating ideas.从研究中收集故事后,您可以使用它们来提示创新。占据现有故事并开始改变它们以发现提高用户体验的方法。在这种背景下故事的主要目的是生成的;因此,推迟判断和拥抱狂野的想法是关键。首先取代你的故事(来自用户研究)并询问自己“什么 - 如果是什么”。通过叙述中的讲故事作为一个群体的头脑风暴,每个人都在进步时增加了这个故事。
  • 传达抽象概念。Experiences are naturally hard to communicate, especially when they are still at idea-only stage. UX stories are a powerful way to articulate abstract concepts by focusing on the user value that will be derived from the experience. Rather describing the finite details of how a user may move through an app tap by tap, tell a story about what the user was doing before the app existed, the pain she experienced, and how the app alleviated that pain. A story that shows how a new offering will be used is more cohesive, comprehensive, and meaningful than a to-do list of functional requirements or proposed features. When conveying abstract concepts through a UX story, aim to:
    • Keep the story high level so that the feedback is concept related (rather than visuals or interface related)
    • Craft a compelling beginning-to-end story.
    • Focus on the experience as a whole, not on unfamiliar technology.
  • Persuading the audience.A critical success factor for UX work is how much confidence it gains from stakeholders — from developers, to product managers, to executives. UX stories help tremendously when aiming to persuade because they transcend expertise and bias. They enable everyone to understand and agree on common goal; they help the audience empathize with the user. The story can also become a tangible artifact that can be distributed or referred to as needed.
  • 评估设计。故事可以作为衡量成功的基准。试着从同一个用户的角度重新讲述这个故事,但要使用更新的设计。痛点消除了吗?新的痛点出现了吗?

用户体验故事传达设计

一个团队有一个问题要解决。它收集用户数据,推动以用户为中心的创新理念。在努力寻找一个可行的、经过审查的解决方案之后,团队成员准备将其提交给高管。

用户体验故事传达设计

The team walks through each screen, describing features and capabilities. When it comes time for discussion, some stakeholders are asleep while others become disgruntled in disagreement.

用户体验故事传达设计

该团队而不是以屏幕显示设计屏幕,而不是以不同的方式呈现它。该团队讲述了一个关于爱丽丝的同志故事 - 她是谁以及什么激励她。高管置于她一天的背景下:陷入雨水并迟到。

用户体验故事传达设计

“思绪开始在爱丽丝的脑袋里飞驰。公共汽车要多晚?她会被解雇吗?她要熬夜而错过学校接送吗?但也许这不是爱丽丝必须的方式……”通过引人入胜、引人入胜的故事,高管们能够与团队达成同样的理解和结论。

UX故事的风险

Your stories must stay rooted in UX data; otherwise, you may believe in your stories more than in your users and end up with products that satisfy imaginary needs. To avoid this danger, check in regularly with your end users as your story evolves over time and make sure that you staying grounded in real pain points and needs.

Conclusion

UX stories are a communication tool that can be used in lieu of boring task check lists that are far removed from the user. They provide a natural, engaging way to share behavior, perspectives, and attitudes.

用户体验故事归根结底是关于了解你的受众以及如何吸引他们。一定要考虑到观众对故事背景的意识。找到一个方法,以一个固定的,难忘的方式结束故事,可以促进围绕你选择的话题交谈。

在许多商业环境中,讲故事让人感到陌生和不舒服,但故事能激发听者的想象力。这种丰富的沟通方式有助于为说服或行动呼吁奠定基础,最终改善手头的设计。

在我们全日制培训课程中了解有关讲故事的更多信息沟通设计.

Reference

Quesenbery,W.,&Brooks,K.2010年。为用户体验讲故事:为更好的设计构思故事。罗森菲尔德媒体有限责任公司。