Shifting from traditional product-development processes like Waterfall to modern Agile frameworks such as Scrum can be a乌克斯的挑战。We must learn a whole new set of nomenclature, adapt to new timeframes in which to complete our research or design work, and step outside of our comfort zones to collaborate with cross-functional partners, many of whom we’ve never worked with before. Once we start making these changes, we quickly realize there’s a lot more to Agile than simply working in time-boxed sprints.
Unlike Waterfall, Scrum has many recurring meetings that are typically referred to as ceremonies, including每日立场（也称为每日scrum.），积压细化（也称为积压露面），sprint planning,演示， 和回顾。作为乌克斯人搬到敏捷, they may wonder whether they need to attend each ceremony and what they should do to adequately prepare and participate. In this article, I’ll outline what UX should do at each Scrum ceremony to maintain open communication, influence product success, and productively contribute to the team. Much of the discussion in this article will focus on the Scrum framework for Agile, but many of the concepts can be applied to other Agile approaches as well.
UX参与敏捷团队means more than just working a sprint ahead to quickly and continuously deliver ideas to product owners, stakeholders, and developers. It also means being a present and active contributor in the current sprint, with all its meetings and ceremonies. Simply put, UX professionals working in Agile should not skip Scrum ceremonies or tune out during them.
When we decide to skip or not fully participate in ceremonies, we risk losing sight of:
- 这bigger picture, our product vision, and intended outcomes
- Implementation feasibility and practicality with development
- How our design intent gets translated by developers in code
- What to prioritize in upcoming sprints
- 如果需要发现或额外的Sprint 0工作
- Opportunities to invite the team toobserve研究或参与讲习班
- Areas where UX can improve the product
不参加仪式，我们还对内部关系和沟通进行了不必要的压力。Don’t frustrate your teammates by forcing them to inform you of what was discussed, after the ceremony. Many people won’t take time out of their busy schedules to catch you up, so engage in the ceremonies with a positive attitude to avoid misunderstandings and diminishing relationships.
如果你发现自己太瘦了，无法参加仪式，你可能会在给定的冲刺中试图做太多。将您的工作量恢复提议有利于在当前冲刺中完成的需要做些什么，以确保开发人员具有所需的内容。这种方式应该开始释放你参加仪式。随着时间的推移，随着时间的推移，随着时间练习平衡时间来完成在会议上花费的时间来完成工作，您将能够在Sprint工作量中添加更多活动。敏捷是关于回应改变，所以it’s important to check in with yourself and make sure you’re not overdoing it to the point where you can’t make it to ceremonies.
If, after all this, you’re still unable to make it to ceremonies, discuss your workload with your manager, product owner, and Scrum master to adjust your time accordingly. Your teammates should be your allies and understand why your presence and participation is crucial in these important events. If they don’t,educate them在why it’s productive for the team and the product to have UX represented as the voice of the user in Scrum ceremonies. Without that voice, the team risks introducingux债务和having to rip out, redesign, or refactor features that were not developed with end users in mind.
What if You’re Not Dedicated to a Product Team?
Participating in ceremonies is easier when UX supports a single product team, but when it must support multiple development teams, conflicting schedules can make it challenging for UX to attend every ceremony. Try your best to still attend all Scrum ceremonies, especially when your projects move from discovery into delivery.
Your presence in ceremonies should be active and participatory, as opposed to simply showing up to say you did.Be sure that your attendance adds something valuable to the conversation, whether you bringinsights from your researchor use your speaking time toactively签订开发人员谁正在研究您设计的故事，以了解他们是否需要澄清。如果您对会议相反或竞争工作负载优先级，依赖于您的产品所有者或Scrum Master，以便您通知您在错过仪式中讨论的团队。
For example, if daily standup on one team happens in the morning, but you have sprint planning at the same time for another team who is in the middle of delivering an important release, favor the sprint planning meeting, but check with your product owner or Scrum master after to understand any blockers on the other team that UX can help resolve. In these instances where UX mustdivide and conquer，UX人们依靠队友依靠队友尽可能地留下来完全可以接受。
Prioritizing Amidst Direct Conflicts and Resource Constraints
When it’s impossible to attend all ceremonies due to time conflicts or resource constraints, figure out which meetings are not crucial for UX, and occasionally skip them. Ask yourself the following 5 questions to help prioritize direct conflicts with Scrum ceremonies and manage the reality of being unable to attend all meetings, for all teams, all the time.
- Is there another person in the ceremony who can represent UX and update me, afterwards?
- Have I had enough collaborative time with developers to feel confident that they understand my design intent and evidence from user research?
- Have I missed more than 3 ceremonies in the past 2 sprints?
Most Scrum teams have a daily meeting that’s referred to as standup or daily Scrum. (Scrum is both the name of an Agile framework and the name of a daily event on many Agile teams.) The meeting is intended to be very short, usually no more than 15 minutes, and focuses on communicating with the team to ensure that work is on track and any impediments are shared and quickly resolved.Each member of the team, including UX, remains standing to encourage concise answers to each of the following questions:
- Share simple research findings or user insights with the team, when relevant
- Keep the team aware of what you plan to do that day related to design, user research, design reviews, workshops, design sprints
- Mention areas where you’d like input from engineering or product
- Invite team members to usability testing and other research happening that day
- Bring up any internal or external factors blocking you from getting work done
- Lean on your Scrum master to help you remove these barriers to progress
自从UX is typically working a sprint or more ahead of the engineering team, it is already a challenge to keep the team aligned. It is for this reason that attending daily standup and clearly and concisely communicating what UX is doing are so important. Additionally, UX should listen to other teammates during standup for any potential blockers or issues that UX may be able to address or help resolve.
In this meeting, the product owner will review backlog items in their current优先顺序并重新调整优先事项，以满足业务和用户需求。产品所有者将与团队讨论讨论以了解是否需要其他故事或需要进行编辑或删除现有故事。在某些情况下，该团队将重写或添加详细信息，以共同讨论故事，以确保所有内容都被覆盖。
Having UX professionals present in this meeting to facilitate whiteboard sketching or otherideation techniquescan help the team solve issues together.尖峰也可能被添加到积压的项目中，以便团队需要在Sprint中进行额外的发现工作以获得打开问题的答案。
When backlog items reach an acceptable level of detail and context, it’s important that they also meet your team’s definition of准备好to be pulled into a sprint。这一要求保障团队拉动缺乏缺乏富有成效工作所需的信息的Sprint票，因此必须花费什么可能是工作时间来了解应该首先要做的事情。这定义准备好对于每个Backlog项目，通常因团队而异，但如果结果是用户面向用户，则应通过以下UX标准：
- User story and acceptance criteria are clearly articulated in the ticket
UX participation in backlog grooming can bring foresight into what the development team will work on in the next sprint and provide additional support for the product owner.虽然产品负责人应通知的使用r needs and business opportunities as UX, they have many responsibilities that they need to juggle (e.g., implementation realities from the engineering team, strategic goals from business stakeholders, core performance metrics of the team), so there may be times when your product owner needs additional help and accountability from UX. UX should help ensure that product owners make the right decisions for users and the product when choosing which backlog items come next.
Sprint planning usually occurs on the first day of the sprint, or sometimes, one day prior. The goal of sprint planning is to review the prioritized backlog items again, and estimate the level of effort needed to complete them. Much like refinement, the product owner leads this discussion, seeking critical input from the team with every ticket reviewed. Ultimately, the outcome of sprint planning is a sprint backlog that reflects the team’s velocity — the amount of work the team is comfortable committing to complete in the sprint. Sprint planning is also when teams set a realistic sprint goal, which is a short, one- or two-sentence description of what the team plans to achieve during the sprint. The sprint goal serves as the team’s vision for the next few weeks.
UX参与Sprint计划很重要，因为，就像发展工作一样，UX工作应该是accounted for in the backlog, either with separate UX tickets that share epics with engineering, or as part of the same tickets where UX work is organized into subtasks off of the parent user story. When estimating your UX work, use t-shirt sizes, rather than story points. if your scrum team uses velocity only for engineering work, which is common. If UX work is included in the team’s velocity, participate in estimating story points using the same method as your engineering team.
Regardless of the ticket structure used, UX work needs to be visible to the rest of the development team to ensure that research and design tasks are not skipped. Participating in sprint planning helps to keep the team aligned and informed about what UX will do during the sprint. This approach can help the engineering-team and product-team members recognize the rigor that goes into the design and research process; consistently seeing and hearing about the UX work required for each item will help cement buy-in later on for new approaches and suggestions for changes.
Make sure to account for user testing in sprint planning因此，团队知道要期待的内容，有机会参加会议或汇报。对于更大的研究举措或诸如设计冲刺等的研讨会，在那里重要的是整个团队参与其中, propose committing to a slightly lower velocity that sprint so that engineers have time set aside to attend the research without feeling like they must multitask during it to still achieve the sprint goal.
在Sprint规划结束时，团队应该有他们的工作量才能为Sprint进行。但是，请记住Sprint计划中讨论的用户故事旨在成为占位符，以便与您的工程师进行进一步的对话和协作。Don’t just attach designs to user stories and then throw them over the wall and hope for the best; stay engaged with your team during the current sprint and be available for questions or discussions.
Sprint审查（通常称为演示）通常会发生在冲刺的第二个到最后一天。在许多情况下，如果团队在Sprint末尾发射，则此仪式落在代码发布前一天。在此次会议期间，产品所有者将向利益攸关方和可能受到在冲刺中完成的工作受影响的其他人的工作代码。这sprint review is a good opportunity for UX to support the product owner in presenting the work completed.It’s also a favorable forum toreview test results和插入以用户为中心的见解that either informed the current release or will positively impact the next iteration of the product.
有时，UX可能会使Sprint Demo感觉不知所措地通过收到的新功能请求或不太理想的反馈。当发生这种情况时，以有组织的方式记录反馈，例如将其标记为诸如的类别去做,澄清，和to-persuade。Work with your product owner and scrum master to help navigate the feedback and prioritize new requirements that arose from demo. It may be that your team needs to have early, frequent meetings with certain cross-functional partners during the sprint to avoid surprises or off-putting expectations.
这retrospective is a great time for UX to talk about process changes; because the topic of the meeting is to reflect on the team’s processes, people will be more receptive to suggestions. In developer-focused environments, it can be difficult to advocate for process changes that will improve the ability to deliver good UX work, so consider positioning your ideas as experiments to be tested during the next sprint.
回顾一下s are also appropriate times to discuss:
- Implementation mistakes or miscommunications where the developers didn’t implement your designs how you had intended
- 关于你的问题可交付成果和the定义donethat you provided for designs
- Ways in which you communicated design specifications: if they were problematic, confusing, or not sufficiently specific
In addition to sharing why the past sprint could have gone better, listen for ways to improve how you communicate with the rest of the team. Are your design specifications easily understood? Did you overwhelm your team with user data that is irrelevant for the current sprint? Were your design solutions challenging to implement with existing architecture or frameworks? Focus on whether you are helping the rest of the team solve their own particular problems, becausethat’s how UX can be seen as a real asset, rather than a bottleneck.
回顾一下s are also a good time to bring up the user’s perspective. Oftentimes, teams will have to maketradeoffswhere the user experience might be deemphasized in favor of getting work shipped during a sprint, so discuss with your team if any of the recently completed user stories containux债务或者从用户体验的角度妥协。
如果你的团队没有举行回顾,然后哟ur process is not Agile. It’s up to every team to find its own way, but the true value of the method is only realized when the team finds out what works and what doesn’t. Because there are so many retrospectives in the life of an Agile team, chances are that eventually some UX-related suggestions will be listened to.A good rule of thumb is that the team shouldn’t implement faster than it can learn.
UX专业人员对乌克斯是否应该参加Scrum仪式而且，有时甚至可以将这些会议视为生产力的障碍。但是，UX应该参与Scrum仪式，以保持订婚，并意识到该团队正在发生的事情。有关在Scrum仪式中的职责职责的更多信息，请携带我们的全天Lean UX and Agilecourse.