不断优先考虑快速简便的解决方案可以帮助我们在短期内击中发布日期,但随着时间的推移,反复选择快捷方式将使我们带来对用户产生不利影响的验证问题。这些问题被称为UX债务,如果留下过长时间的债务,导致昂贵,耗时的问题,以努力解决。敏捷团队由于规范发布了新功能和功能,因此尤其容易发生UX债务。然而,UX debt can accumulate in any project, regardless of the development methodology employed而且太多会导致信任,交通和收入丧失。在本文中,我们定义UX债务,并展示如何确定它;我们还讨论了如何优先考虑UX债务问题并解决它们的方法。虽然这些方法是敏捷环境的框架,但它们很容易适应其他开发过程。

What Is UX Debt?

UX debt is similar to its technical counterpart, known astechnical (or tech) debt。最初由1992年的Ward Cunningham设计,技术债务是指发射更快或更简单的技术解决方案的额外时间和精力成本,而不是释放最佳方法。它意味着在发布后必须返回和解决问题的成本总是高于首先发射理想解决方案(即,债务是以富利的利益偿还)。Like tech debt, UX debt is often incurred when designers and researchers are working under tight timelines or impractical project constraints.有助于UX债务的其他因素包括:

  • 用户测试
  • Disregarding brand standards andstyle guides
  • 委员会设计
  • 误解产品愿景
  • 与其他产品获取或合并
  • 差不多的沟通或文件
  • QA测试不足
  • 遗留代码或延迟重构

Why is it more expensive to fix a UX problem later, rather than before launch? For many reasons. First, redesigning and recoding consumes many resources: the team has to refamiliarize with the nuances and details of the already launched features, spend time debugging them, and then possibly retrofit other parts of the software. From a pure software-engineering perspective, coding the UI right the first time is much easier on the developers than having to change shipped code. But there are also user-experience reasons for the extra cost of UX debt:

  • 推出次优设计影响长期市场份额,因为许多客户将为您提供一次尝试,然后在设计过于困难或不满足他们的需求时放弃。即使您稍后修复他们的投诉,用户也不会知道,因为他们不会在他们体验不良的情况下重塑您的网站或产品。
  • Users will become accustomed to the bad design. Then, after you change the design, people will be forced to change their habits and hate you for that.
  • 来回改变整个UX的任何特定组件的设计将降低一致性和一致性的感觉。
  • 您的失败将永远在互联网上生活。自学习是社会,用户将继续“通知”多年的博客,留言板,视频渠道和讨论旧版本的来源。这个过时的信息不仅有害而不是对您的用户有帮助,它还将吓到遇到遇到糟糕设计和人们发现和发布的任何尴尬替代方法的新前景。

Any UX debt will incur some of these costs. But the longer the UX debt remains unpaid, the more these costs will mount (think of “compound interest” as an analogy).

UX债务的一个例子可以在FedEx的网站上看到印刷海报产品页面上的旋转木马。最初,旋转木马显示四种相关产品;但是,单击向右箭头以查看更多相关产品只显示一个额外的项目。旋转木马显示空白空间,而不是用更多的图像和链接填充内容区域,而不是用更多的图像和链接填充内容区域。寻找邀请或类似印刷材料的用户可能会在这旋转木马中缺乏相关产品令人沮丧。FedEx应该向旋转木马添加更多相关产品或更新功能以适应不同的内容。随着时间的推移,团队很容易忘记这些看似小问题,并且在有压力转向其他优先事项时,回去修复它们的可能性会减少。但是,这一点问题会影响用户and should be addressed to preserve the website’s integrity.

A product carousel on FedEx that is missing several items.
为了解决这个UX债务的这个例子,FedEx应该添加更多相关产品或更新旋转木马功能以适应不同的内容。

虽然这个词债务对于大多数人来说,隐喻并不意味着应以所有费用避免UX债务。特别是在敏捷时工作时,会有速度达到释放日期的速度,以达到释放日期,需要节省时代的替代品。虽然某些类型的UX债务(例如融合,不一致,保留一个简单的概念模型的问题,但是,用于解释和统一的简单概念模型)更有可能在敏捷中,任何故意导致UX债务的任何决定都应仔细和集体。考虑如果上市更快,值得对用户感知产生负面影响的风险以及稍后修复问题的高成本。当答案是肯定的时候,应跟踪,管理和,逐步支付所产生的UX债务,以便用户没有完全注意到它并完全放弃网站或应用程序。

Identifying UX Debt

UX债务包括在对用户产生负面影响的快速,简单或粗心的解决方案的经验中包含任何持续的问题。无论是故意还是意外地介绍,重要的是要在这些容易偿还债券的经验领域寻找UX债务:

例如,赛门铁克投资者关系网站上的新闻稿包含了无法被视为可访问的对比度过低的正文副本。虽然低对比度不是一个错误,但这是一个ux债务的例子,可能会对低视力或色盲用户产生负面影响。每件事WCAGguidelines, contrast ratios between text and background colors should be 4.5 to 1 for normal-size text. The contrast ratio between the text color and background color on this page is only 3.2 to 1 and therefore, too low to be considered accessible. Symantec should have selected a body-copy color that meets accessibility standards and must now remember to go back and fix this issue of UX debt.

A press release on Symantec's website has text that's too light for accessibility.
为了解决这个UX债务的这个例子,赛门铁克应该选择一个较暗的身体复制颜色,导致更高的对比度,以满足可访问性标准。

The best way to uncover UX debt is by getting real user feedback often and in a各种方式。虽然您应该始终在释放Sprint功能之前进行用户测试,但正在进行的测试也应至少每月一次发生一次,并专注于关键流量和realistic tasks that users frequently do在您的网站或申请。这种方法将帮助您了解用户体验的整体健康,并确定最严重的问题。其他用户反馈方法可以帮助您找到UX债务包括:

除用户反馈外,还使用整个产品团队设置重复时间,including developers那to review the overall health of the site or app.开辟讨论,为剩下的团队促进任何可能对用户体验产生负面影响的UX或技术债务项目。Product management can also bring up debt-related issues found by leadership or other stakeholders. If possible, share trends or patterns from分析在讨论中,如果需要进一步调查以确定债务,团队可以一起决定。

Inconsistencies in the UI can be considered UX debt, but not always.可以在品牌指南内符合用户界面中偶尔的略有差异,并不会导致用户出现问题。例如,在A / B测试期间,在团队理解哪些变化是最佳的并且是否应该添加到A中,可能存在一些临时UX问题design system。由于变异是暂时的和故意,因此这些类型的不一致性不应被视为UX债务。(为避免创建UX债务作为A / B测试的副产品,团队应确保获胜元素以全面的一致性和清晰的新图案或组件标准缩放到设计系统中。)

An example of an informational inconsistency in the UI that does count as UX debt was observed on Amazon. The shipping-for-returns page displayed inconsistent quantities for return items: the user wanted to return 4 pairs of pants, but the text on the page read返回2个项目摘要信息说Refund subtotal for 3 items。这种矛盾的信息导致用户质疑退款金额并导航回上一页以仔细检查估计的退款是否正确。亚马逊的不一致是UX债务,应解决,以帮助用户通过返回流程顺利移动。

Amazon's returns page displays inconsistent quantity information.
A user on Amazon encountered contradictory, incorrect item quantities when executing a return. This inconsistency caused them to question Amazon’s credibility and accuracy. This type of issue counts as UX debt.

当实际UX-debt像这样的问题和缺陷found, their severity, frequency, and location in the users’ journey should drive the issue valuation and prioritization. Though in the following sections we discuss how to track, prioritize, and resolve issues when working in the Agile development process,the approaches and concepts outlined can be adapted and applied to any development methodology并将帮助您跟踪,排名,并随着时间的推移逐步清理UX债务。

跟踪和优先问题

一旦确定了UX债务项目,您可以跟踪它们以获取优先级的方法。每种方法都有优点和缺点,因此选择一个最适合您的团队和组织的方法非常重要。跟踪UX债务项目的常见方式包括:

  • 将UX-Depact项目直接添加到Backlog以进行优先级
  • 在电子表格中捕获UX债务项目,然后将它们添加到Backlog中

Adding UX-Debt Items Directly to the Backlog

Putting UX debt items directly into the backlog can work well for teams that have well-organized backlogs with clear severity indicators and prioritization processes. However, for large, complex organizations that deal with many用户故事和产品积压项目,直接向积压添加UX债务可能意味着这些物品丢失或不断剥夺以支持新功能和功能。一个用户体验专业人士谁对此做法表示:

“We track our UX-debt items using an epic in our backlog. During backlog grooming, we review the list of technical and UX-debt items, then we collectively prioritize and decide what to tackle in the next two weeks. We do this before we plan for any new features and functionality so we can balance cleanup with new features."

为了确保UX债务获得所需的注意,它应该得到每个Sprint,为UX债务创建产品 - 积压项目或标签,并使用与积压中的其他项目相同的严重性指示符。这样,all items can be evaluated using the same dimensions for prioritization during grooming and planning.This method will also help teams look back and see how much UX debt was been paid back within a time period.

What will improve the product experience the most: a new feature or making an existing feature usable? Quite often, the latter choice is best, since a feature that people can’t use might as well not exist. Thus, fixing something that doesn’t work for users has the same effect as adding a new feature, in terms of what customers actually get to use. Therefore, UX problems with existing features could and should often get assigned higher priority than new features. Moreover, features are usually implemented in order of expected benefit, so that an old feature is likely to be intrinsically more valuable than a new feature, if only the old feature could be made to work for users.

Organize and Prioritize in a Spreadsheet

For teams with many UX debt items or complex backlogs, prioritize issues in a spreadsheet before adding them to the backlog. This method will protect the team from getting overwhelmed or ignoring long lists of product-backlog items. It will also help the product owner prioritize issues accordingly and add to the backlog only those UX-debt items that make the most sense for the product vision, users, and team workload. The following factors willreveal the biggest pain points in the users’ experience and should be included in the spreadsheet:

  • 来自用户的角度的问题描述(如何影响它们?)
  • 在它发生的经验中(意识,考虑,转换)
  • 发生频率(它经常发生一次?)
  • 谁报告了这个问题?(用户,团队,利益相关者)
  • UX水平和解决问题所需的发展工作(低,中等或高)

分数每个问题通过为经验区域,频率,记者和努力水平分配价值来解决问题。然后,使用a散射图的形式的优先级矩阵要查看问题落在用户价值的维度和努力修复的位置。这种可视化可以帮助您排名问题并在清理UX债务后沟通进展利益攸关方和领导随着时间的推移。

UX债务优先级的严重程度
在散点图中可视化UX债务可以帮助团队根据用户价值和解决问题的努力组织,理解和优先顺序问题,以便在将其添加到Backlog之前。

Though the costs associated with going back and fixing issues will always be higher than launching with the ideal solution in the first place,在优先考虑避免在清理UX债务时避免浪费更多时间,努力和资源,权衡所有这些因素仍然很重要。一个用户体验专业人士谁对此做法表示:

“我们将UX债务添加到积压,但在所有其他竞争优先事项中都丢失并忽略了。通过组织电子表格中的项目,首先,产品所有者,铅开发人员和用户体验设计人员可以将它们一起查看并确定一些项目添加到最新冲刺的积压。随着时间的推移,偿还我们的UX和技术债务感觉更加可控。“

The most important consideration to keep in mind is that UX debt and technical debt should never be disregarded altogether.许多敏捷organizations倾向于优先考虑技术债务超过UX债务,但专注于另一个类型的债务只会导致用户的更多问题和更昂贵的修复。意识到这两种类型的债务经常携手并进。不要完全放弃UX债务,赞成解决技术债务,反之亦然。优先考虑旨在同时减少技术和ux债务的努力。它更有效率,并确保你不会通过专注于一种类型来进一步进入债务,同时放弃另一个。这种方法还将有助于产品保持与用户的充分信任和可信度。

虽然高优先级UX问题肯定应该首先固定,但不应完全放弃较低优先级。随着岁月的,累积层的藤壶甚至会慢慢地发货,并且用户体验将感觉像较低和较低的产品一样,因为用户遇到了他们的方式的每一步。

解决UX债务

偿还UX债务可能起初令人生畏,将需要时间,但有几种方法可以解决它,同时仍然对您的数字产品进行整体改进。One approach is to dedicate a specific number of story points to fix UX debt during each sprint or every other sprint.故事点数可以随时间波动,具体取决于团队的工作量,但尝试每个Sprint至少一个或两个UX债务项目,最好是带宽允许。使用易于理解的可视化,来自用户测试的证据,并清楚地解释每个Sprint在每个Sprint中所取得的成就,以帮助领导和高管了解所取得的进展以及为什么重要的进展。

Communicate UX debt payback over time.
显示进度和沟通解决UX债务随着时间的推移,有助于领导和高管了解清理对用户体验的重要性和积极影响。

另一种方法是计划一个quarterly sprint dedicated to cleaning up tech debt and UX debt。The team should collectively decide what areas to focus on in the cleanup sprint and, at the end, show what was cleaned up. If an entire sprint isn’t feasible, some teams will take a day (sometimes referred to as a奶酪日)而不是完全冲刺,以解决尽可能多的UX债务。以这种方式接近解决方案使利益相关者和领导委员会经常与偿还债务进行解决,特别是在可以证明和进展时communicated in terms of user and business value generated.

Conclusion

UX debt isn’t always avoidable but teams can organize and collaborate around how to address it. Include all of the right people as early as possible to discuss the risks of a premature or haphazard launch and develop a cadence in looking for less-than-optimal experience elements. Conduct regular user testing and启发式评论of the experience to ensure new UX-debt issues are found and prioritized. Leverage data, such as the scores used in severity plotting, to make the case for why certain issues warrant resolution over others, and show progress in debt-cleanup efforts. Acknowledging and formulating a plan for paying UX debt back over time will help you resolve it, before your users start to notice.

有关如何识别,优先顺序和解决UX债务的更多信息,请参阅我们的全天培训课程,精益ux和敏捷

Reference

Technical DebtWiki