In traditional product-development processes, teams often rely on wasteful and lengthy business requirements documents and functional design specifications to move from avison for a digital product概述它应该包括什么以及它应该如何工作。Teams预计分布式文档以足够的,而不是正在进行关于用户,问题,想法和解决方案的持续对话。

但是,这些文件通常会失败;没有人有时间或注意阅读它们,甚至是那些人阅读他们结束到底可能会消失的是对建立的言论的大大不同的解释。这些沉重的文件而不是推动生产力,从一开始就扼杀创造力,通信,协作和创新。作为备选,用户故事地图work much better as lightweight representations of the digital product that an Agile team intends to build.

User-Story Mapping Defined

定义:用户故事映射(也称为用户故事地图,故事地图和故事映射)是一个精益UX映射方法, often practiced by Agile teams, that uses sticky notes and sketches to outline the interactions that the team expects users to go through to complete their goals in a digital product.

Jeff Patton推广了该方法,取代了瀑布开发中发现的冗长,技术要求收集和淤泥更新过程。故事地图旨在激发敏捷团队成员之间的协作和对话,同时为它们提供更大的数字产品如何流动和适合如何一起的画面。后一种质量的故事地图在敏捷环境中很重要,因为整个产品的忽视是一种常见的挑战,当团队从积压中的用户故事的离散列表工作时可能会出现。

A user-story map depicts 3 types of actions at different granularity: activities (the most general actions), steps, and details (the most specific actions). User activities and steps display horizontally across the top of the map, and the details stack vertically underneath their respective steps in priority order. To define each level of a story map, we’ll use a feature for depositing checks through a bank’s mobile application as an example:

  1. Activitiesrepresent thehigh-level tasksthat users aim to complete in the digital product — for example,Check account balance或者Deposit a check。Depending on the type of application or website you're creating, you may only have a few high-level activities. These can display in sequential order or in parallel if multiple paths for various user types exist. Exploratory research about顶级用户任务should inform this level of the map.
  2. 脚步sit directly underneath activities and also display in sequential order. They represent the specific subtasks that users will go through in the product to complete the activity above. For example, the activity,Deposit a check可以解构成步骤Enter mobile deposit details, Sign check, Photograph check, Submit deposit,确认存款
  3. 细节are the third level of the story map and describe the lowest-granularity interactions that the team anticipates users will experience to complete the step above. For example,Enter username or emailEnter密码看起来是两个单独的细节登录步。
故事地图包含3个级别;活动,步骤和细节。
User-story maps contain 3 main levels of actions (activities, steps, and details) that users will take in a digital product to complete their goals.

Why It’s Called User-Story Mapping

如果你是新的概念用户stories,它们是从用户的角度写入的特征,UI元素或任务的非正式,自然语言描述。他们旨在让团队在最终用户的背景下互相交谈,他们会收到的福利。这些对话帮助每个人都能比阅读要求文件更快地到达共享了解。用户故事可以以高级写入,以描述完整的产品或功能以及使用户能够执行或在低级别,以概述接口元素及其值。例如:

  • High-level user story:“As a checking account holder, I want todeposit a check from my mobile device, so that I不必浪费时间去银行。“
  • Low-level user story:“As a checking account holder, I want to保存我的凭据, so that I每次登录时都不要输入我的用户名和密码

敏捷团队通常依赖于小型,高价值的用户故事来规划和估算每个Sprint上工作的内容。在用户故事地图中,活动,步骤和详细信息捕获为表示用户操作的短,简洁的动词短语。这些作为用户故事格式的前半部分的基础,描述了用户需要或想要做的。然后可以阐述故事,包括完成叙述的下半部分的关键效益。因此,调用映射方法用户故事映射,因为它可以用来发展动词phrases captured on the map into fully fleshed-out user stories that can be discussed further, eventually paired with acceptance criteria, and added to the product backlog for prioritization and estimation.

何时以及如何创建用户故事地图

故事地图可以在产品开发过程中的任何一点中使用,以驱动讨论并对齐团队。您可以创建一个故事地图,绘制初始后的新产品的体验发现工作, or for an existing product, after可用性测试。In either case, the story map begins to illustrate solutions to the problems uncovered in the research. Once created, teams will maintain and refer back to their story map over time; they add to it, modify it to reflect the actual state of the product, and use it to guide what to work on and release in subsequent sprints.

故事地图最好由商品,UX,开发和QA的代表合作建造,并协同工作,讨论和塑造产品计划。在开始之前建立以下上下文很重要:

  • 用户目标和需求:Outline what users are trying to do,为什么the product or feature(s) you are story-mapping are important, and what真实的你解决问题。
  • 故事地图的范围:State whether your story map will portray a current or a future iteration of the product and whether you will map an entire product, just one feature, or a section of the experience. Use caution in mapping massive products; breaking story maps up into manageable scopes and segments is often better than tackling an entire large-scale product in one story map. Being transparent about the scope of the story map upfront helps the team stay on topic and on task.
  • 结果:Talk about what your users will be able to do as a result of launching the product or feature outlined in the map. This information will help the team maintain focus on the outcomes instead of getting too bogged down by specific solutions and tools. Focusing on outcomes also sets realistic beginning and end points for the map.

创建一个故事地图,人团队使用粘滞便笺,白板和开放的墙壁空间;remote teams可以利用视频会议和协作电子表格,演示幻灯片或基于Web的程序。每个人都应该在地图上工作;没有人或角色应该统治其他人。

Assign differentlycolored sticky notes(whether real or virtual) to each row of activities, steps, and details to keep the story map visually organized. It’s also important to frame your activities, steps, and details by what the用户在产品中的那个特定点,而不是产品是什么从技术上讲为用户做。例如,如果您正在使用人工智能和机器学习创建数字产品,故事中的一步可能会显示为分享偏好, 不是Train the AI.

Remote teams can use collaborative tools and video conferencing to build a story map.
远程工作的团队可以依赖视频会议和协作,基于Web的工具,电子表格,甚至演示文稿幻灯片,以共同创建故事地图。

用户故事映射与客户旅程映射

当我在UX会议课程期间介绍用户故事映射精益ux&敏捷,从业者经常问它是如何与之不同的customer-journey mapping。关键差异是每个地图类型从不同的角度可视化,它们用于不同的目的。客户旅程地图采用了用户的角​​度,显示了她完成的步骤,以完成目标,加上沿途中使用的思想,情感,渠道和设备。

A user-story map takes the perspective of the product. It aims to guide the planning and implementation of features and functionality to solve users’ problems. Put simply, a user-story map connects what we uncover in customer-journey mapping to what we’re going to intentionally do about it in the product we create, beyond listing out general ideas and opportunities.

A customer-journey map can easily evolve into a user-story map by adding the activities, steps, and details. Similarly, a user-story map can morph into a customer-journey map if the users’ context, thoughts, and feelings are added. These two map types can work well when combined, but are also effective when used independently, as the研究方法used to inform and create each of them are often the same.

Customer journey maps are from the perspective of the user.
Customer-journey maps are from the perspective of a person, depicting the journey she goes through to complete a task, along with her thoughts, feelings, and channels used.
User-story maps are from the perspective of the product.
User-story maps are from the perspective of the product and communicate users’ granular interactions therein. They’re used for alignment and tactical planning for developing and releasing features and product iterations that aim to solve the problems uncovered in the journey map.

User-Story Maps in Agile

User-story maps support the success of Agile product-development teams for several reasons:

  • 改善协作和团队对齐。用户故事映射缓解对话和协作围绕要构建的内容,为什么和谁。他们帮助每个人都能比创建和阅读500页文件更有效地到达共享的理解和方向。
  • 促进产品积压的创建和扩展。The second-level steps in your story map translate to epics in an Agile product backlog. An epic is a large user story that must be broken down into multiple, smaller user-stories and tasks. The third-level details in the story map are the inputs for those smaller user stories and tasks, albeit with a bit more detail and acceptance criteria added before they hit the product backlog.
步骤进化为史诗,细节成为敏捷积压中的用户故事。
故事映射中的步骤将史诗或敏捷产品积压中的用户故事组翻译。详细信息也进一步分解为具有验收标准的用户故事和任务,并添加到积压。
  • Minimum-viable-product slicing and well-informed prioritization.Story maps help teams see what theirminimum-viable-product releasecould or should include, along with how and when to release end-to-end product increments with specific goals and outcomes in mind. Teams will often draw release lines directly on the story map, moving the details included in each release above the corresponding lines and leaving deferred details for a subsequent release below. Those deferred details, along with any new activities, steps, and details added to the map, become candidates for future sprints and releases based on what the team learns and prioritizes over time.
基于目标的故事地图中的MVP切片。
如何将故事映射切片以表示第一个版本的示例:在线之上的所有内容都将包含在原型中,以了解用户是否了解过程(目标),并且可以成功存入检查(结果)。
  • Support identification of risky assumptions.Creativity can sometimes get the best of us: when we’re working with sticky notes and stories, we may add risky elements to the map — items that are not backed up by user data, aren’t technically feasible, or take our project’s budget or timeline off course. A story map helps us see where these risks exist.We can deprioritize these risky stickies in the story map and replace them with other low-risk ideas with same value proposition. In this way, we can learn from the leaner alternative first before investing further in sophisticated or time-consuming design and development.
在用户故事地图中的危险假设。
故事地图公开可能占用用户或占用过多开发时间的危险产品区域。用宽松的替代方案替换风险胶质,支持相同的价值主张。实验并了解用户在投资额外的时间和努力开发完整功能之前的反应。

Conclusion

故事地图鼓励高效,以用户为中心的关于产品创建的讨论,提高积压的可见性,并允许团队看到更大的画面。如果正常完成,用户故事地图会显示满足用户需求的逻辑和可释放切片,同时揭示了开发领先地位的影响和风险领域。这允许团队早期学习,经常有效,而不是什么。Savvy团队使用这些知识来推动关于在随后的迭代中最大化其时间来最大限度地缩影其时间来最大限度地提高可用性,价值和可行性的决定。

最后,因为敏捷是关于在遵循具体计划之后改变和反应的敏捷,故事地图更好地促进了高效的适应;交换粘滞便笺比修改血统要求文件更容易。更多地了解如何创建一个用户故事地图,协作用户故事映射的好处,以及如何在敏捷产品开发实践中使用这些地图精益ux&敏捷当然在这课程UX Conference

参考

P.(2014年),帕特顿,J。和经济。用户故事映射:发现构建合适产品的整个故事。Sebastopol:奥里利Media,Inc。