六年前,我们进行了一个设计项目调查and found that, after redesigning for usability, the average improvement in key performance indicators (KPI) was135%。我们最近完成了一个new survey, and this time the average improvement was83%。可用性的投资回报(ROI)现在较小,因为成本仍然存在近似不变,因为益处减少。

在这两种情况下,我们在消除异常值后到达了改进估计 - 即,设计项目在重新设计后在所需的指标中实现了10个或更多的项目。关于12%的项目获得了如此巨大的改进,但要保守,我专注于大多数项目,较小(但仍然很大)。

我们的全部研究报告offers detailed redesign case studies, before/after screenshots, and an in-depth discussion of specific measurements.

典型的商业指标包括:

  • 转换率,例如销售或铅生成
  • 交通号码,例如页面查看统计信息
  • User performance, such as the time needed to perform key tasks
  • 目标功能使用,例如单击链接到关键信息的用户数

投资回报率下降

六年足够长,我们可能期望看到两次调查中的改善度量差异 - 确实如此。以下图表将结果分布从我们的两个版本进行了比较可用性ROI.报告。不同的案例研究横跨水平轴布置(通过增加度量改进来排序)。纵轴显示每个案例研究的记录改进。

具有2条曲线的图表,代表了两轮投资回报率研究中的每一项的KPI增益的分布。

We use a logarithmic scale because doing so is necessary to depict the huge improvements in some of the case studies. (We plot cases with no improvement as having had a 1% improvement, because we can't show zero on a logarithmic scale.)

The red curve (current data) is mostly below the blue curve (6 years ago), except for a short stretch in the upper range. This means that the newer case studies generally had smaller usability improvements than the old ones, but that both surveys included a few case studies with equally huge improvements.

The probability that the difference between the two datasets is due to random fluctuations — rather than an actual difference — isp= 8%。在大多数研究中,p在我们接受两个数据集之间的显着差异之前,应小于5%。但8%足够接近5%,我得出结论差异略微重要

In other words, the expected improvement from redesigning for usability is mostly likely smaller now than it was six years ago.

(这项研究没有专注于内联网,但我们最近的结果是预期的改进Intranet度量标准after redesigning for usability show the same trend: we've already cashed in the easy, huge advances, and so new projects will realize less spectacular gains. In the past, a mid-sized company would get$14.8 M/year在生产力中,节省从穷人提高Intranet的可用性;现在它“只有”得到$5.4 M/year。Of course, since the likely cost is about a million, doing so is still worthwhile.)

Why Usability Is Improving Less

从可用性的预期改进比曾经是两个原因的改进:

  • 我们现在有了harvested most of the low-hanging fruit来自真正可怕的网站,占主导地位失去了十年of Web usability (approximately 1993–2003). In those early years, Web design wasabominable— think splash screens, search that didn't find anything, bloated graphics everywhere. The only good thing about these early designs was that they were so bad that it was易用的人成为英雄:即使是最小的研究也会不可避免地揭示了改进的几个巨大机会。
  • Usability budgets have not increased显着,即使网络已经变得更好。随着完整报告详细讨论的,在过去十年中,分配给可用性的项目资源的份额保持稳定在10%左右在那些包括在设计生命周期中的可用性的开明公司。是的,更多公司现在做的可用性。然而,个别项目看不到资金更多,即使他们现在挑战了识别更高水平的设计改进。

在第一点 - COM泡沫的高度处,常见的转化率为1%。今天,2%是普通的转换率。所以,穿过网上,这个 - 1年度可用性指标 - 十年来确实翻了一番。

我们可以再次翻倍吗?并采取预期转换率为4%?最有可能,是的。有些网站已经实现了这一点,就像一些精心设计的电子商务网站正在获得2%的转换率,并在2000年更好地回来。

一旦我们达到4%,我们可以加倍再次?大概。到达良好设计的网站有8%的预期转换率的状态应该是可行的,而且最好的网站也有所了解。从2到4到8%的人可能需要另一十年,每次加倍。

这是互联网用户的简单原因,平均转换率将会超过10%。喜欢比较多个网站before they buy. Also, many users simply research possible purchases or have a general interest in items without being anywhere near the point where they're actually shopping to buy.

忠诚度十年

The网站成功的公式is:

B=V×C×L

Where

  • B=网站完成的业务数量
  • V=来自网站的独特访客
  • C= conversion rate (the percentage of visitors who become customers); note that the concept of conversion applies not only toecommerce sites,但到任何有些网站,在那里有些网站,您希望用户可以做到
  • L=忠诚度率(客户返回的程度重复)

当然,需要考虑进一步的变量,例如购物车的大小以及最受欢迎的产品的边际盈利能力。但粗略地说,网站的成功来自乘以这三个数字。

在乘法中,如果要通过一定百分比提高结果,可以通过该百分比增加任何因素。增加哪个因素 - 结果是相同的。

因此,到了双人网站的业务, 你可以double the number of unique visitors。但是,这将是非常昂贵的,需要你不止两倍广告预算(假设您已经在最有前途的关键词下已经广告,因此需要购买来自不希望或更昂贵的来源的流量)。

或者,你可以转换率加倍并达到相同的业务改进。两倍转换率仍然相当便宜,但在2000年的情况下,这与其不如廉价。根据我们的调查,支出10%的发展预算可用性应提高您的转换率83%。您可以通过支出不到15%的开发预算来增加转换率。在大多数情况下,使用您的开发预算的15%比广告预算一倍更便宜。

然而,随着转化率双——后来,double again — we'll eventually reach the point where the usability investment for continued improvements becomes much more expensive than current budgets. We'll then need to discover ever-more esoteric ways of satisfying customers, and those ways are unlikely to emerge from the cheap and fast user-testing approaches that dominate today.

我们很快将达到忠诚度率的增加,这是实现网站业务指标的大量改进的最佳方式。虽然我们可能会暂时呼唤这个时期2000-2010转换十年for website usability professionals,2010-2020是个忠诚十年

可悲的是,研究忠诚度问题和测试设计思想,以提高忠诚度需要更多昂贵的可用性方法而不是那些帮助我们从过去的用户敌对网站上派遣障碍的障碍的人。例如,可用性专业人员必须进行现场研究,以补充其基于实验室的测试。而且它们必须更深入地对简单的用户测试来充分了解下一代用户需求。

So, as the expected improvement percentages decline and the required usability budgets increase, what will happen to ROI? By definition, ROI relates to two numbers: the return (i.e., the improvement) and the investment (i.e., the budget). As both become less favorable, ROI invariably declines.

幸运的当前的可用性ROI非常大(spend 10% to gain 83%) that it can decrease much more and still be a favorable proposition for business executives. Eventually, of course, we'll reach the point where further usability investments will have lower ROI than other ways of spending the company's money. But that point is probably 20 to 30 years into the future.

完整的报告

全部report on usability return-on-investment (ROI)可用于下载,并在分析所有72个案例研究之前。