Six years ago, we conducted asurvey of design projects并发现,在重新设计可用性之后,关键绩效指标(KPI)的平均改善是135%. 我们最近完成了一项新调查,这一次的平均改善是83%.这个return on investment (ROI) for usability is now smaller, since the cost has remained approximately constant, as the benefits have decreased.

在这两种情况下,我们到达了改进estimates after eliminating outliers — that is, design projects that achieved a factor of 10 or more in the desired metrics after their redesign. About12% of projects get such huge improvements,but to be conservative, I focus on the majority of projects with smaller (but still substantial) gains.

Our full研究报告提供详细的重新设计案例研究,在屏幕截图之前/之后,以及对具体测量的深入讨论。

典型的业务指标包括:

  • 转换率,such as sales or lead generation
  • Traffic numbers,例如页面视图统计信息
  • 用户性能,例如执行关键任务所需的时间
  • Target feature usage,such as the number of users who click a link to crucial information

投资回报率下降

六年的时间足够长,我们可能会期望看到两次调查在改善指标上的差异——我们确实做到了。下表比较了两个版本的结果分布Usability ROIreport. The different case studies are arranged across the horizontal axis (sorted by increasing metric improvements). The vertical axis shows each case study's recorded improvement.

C级hart with 2 curves, representing the distribution of KPI gains in each of the 2 rounds of ROI studies.

我们使用对数标度是因为这样做对于描述一些案例研究中的巨大改进是必要的。(我们将没有改善的病例标绘为改善了1%,因为我们不能在对数标度上显示零。)

红色曲线(当前数据)大多低于蓝色曲线(6年前),只是在上限范围内有一小段延伸。这意味着较新的案例研究通常比旧的案例研究具有更小的可用性改进,但是两个调查都包含了一些同样具有巨大改进的案例研究。

两个数据集之间的差异是由于随机波动而不是实际差异造成的概率是=8%. 在大多数研究中,在我们接受两个数据集之间的显著差异之前,应该小于5%。但8%已经接近5%,我得出结论difference is marginally significant.

换言之,从可用性的重新设计预期的改善现在很可能比六年前小。

(This study didn't focus onintranets但我们最近的研究结果表明内部网指标在对可用性进行重新设计之后,我们也显示出同样的趋势:我们已经从简单而巨大的进步中获利,因此新项目将实现不那么引人注目的收益。在过去,中等规模的公司1480万美元/年in productivity savings from improving its intranet usability from poor to good; now it "only" gets540万美元/年. 当然,由于可能的成本约为100万,这样做仍然是值得的。)

为什么可用性改善得更少

这个expected improvement from usability is smaller than it used to be for two reasons:

  • 我们现在有收获了大部分低垂的果实from the truly horrible websites that dominated the失去的十年网络可用性(大约1993-2003年)。在早期,网页设计可恶的-想想闪屏,搜索什么都没找到,到处都是臃肿的图形。这些早期设计的唯一好处是它们太差了,以至于easy for usability people to be heroes:即使是最小的研究也不可避免地会发现一些巨大的改进机会。
  • 可用性预算没有增加实质上,即使网络变得更好了。正如完整的报告详细讨论的那样,在过去的十年中,分配给可用性的项目资源的份额有所增加held steady at around 10%in those enlightened companies that include usability in their design lifecycle. Yes, many more companies do usability now than ever before. However, individual projects don't see much more funding, even though they're now challenged with identifying a higher level of design improvements.

在第一个网络泡沫的顶峰,一个共同的转化率是1%。如今,2%是一种常见的转换率。因此,在互联网上,这一“1可用性指标”在十年内确实翻了一番。

我们能再加倍吗把预期的转化率提高到4%?很可能是的。一些网站已经做到了这一点,就像一些设计精良的电子商务网站在2000年获得了2%的转化率和更好的回报一样。

Once we reach 4%, can we doubleagain? Probably. It should be feasible to reach the state where a well-designed site has an 8% expected conversion rate, and the very best sites get a bit more. Going from 2 to 4 to 8 percent might take another decade for each doubling.

It's doubtful that average conversion rates will go much beyond 10%, for the simple reason that Internet users喜欢比较多个站点在他们买之前。而且,许多用户只是研究可能的购买,或者对物品有普遍的兴趣,而没有接近他们真正要购买的地方。

这个我oyalty Decade

这个formula for website success是:

B类=×C级×

在哪里?

  • B类=站点完成的业务量
  • =来到现场的独特访客
  • C级=转化率(成为客户的访客百分比);请注意,转化的概念不仅适用于电子商务网站,but to any site where there is something you want users to do
  • =loyalty rate (the degree to which customers return to conduct repeat business)

Of course, there are further variables to consider, such as the size of the shopping cart and the marginal profitability of the most popular products. But roughly speaking, a website's success is derived from multiplying these three numbers.

在乘法中,如果你想把结果增加一定的百分比,你可以把任何一个因子增加这个百分比。增加哪个因素无关紧要,结果是一样的。

Thus, todouble a site's business,you can独特访客数量翻倍. 然而,这将是非常昂贵的,需要你more than double广告预算(假设你已经在最有前途的关键字下做广告,因此需要从前景较差或价格较高的来源购买流量)。

Alternatively, you candouble the conversion rateand achieve the same business improvement. It's still fairly cheap to double conversion rates, though it's not as cheap as it was, say, in 2000. According to our survey, spending 10% of your development budget on usability should improve your conversion rate by 83%. You can probably double the conversion rate by spending less than 15% of your development budget. In most cases, it's far cheaper to use 15% of your development budget than to more than double your advertising budget.

然而,随着转换率翻倍——然后再翻倍——我们最终会达到这样一个点:用于持续改进的可用性投资将比当前预算昂贵得多。然后,我们将需要发现更加深奥的方法来满足客户,而这些方法不太可能出现在当今占主导地位的廉价和快速的用户测试方法中。

我们很快就会达到这样一个地步,即提高忠诚度是实现网站业务指标实质性改进的最佳方式。而我们可以恰当地称之为时期2000-2010转换十年对于网站可用性专业人士,2010–2020loyalty decade.

可悲的是,研究忠诚度问题和测试提高忠诚度的设计思想需要更多的时间昂贵的可用性方法than those that helped us dispatch impediments to user conversion from the user-hostile sites of the past. For example, usability professionals will have to conduct field research to supplement their lab-based testing. And they'll have to go deeper on even simple user tests to adequately understand the next generation of user needs.

那么,随着预期的改进百分比的下降和所需的可用性预算的增加,ROI会发生什么变化呢?根据定义,ROI与两个数字有关:回报(即改进)和投资(即预算)。当两者都变得不那么有利时,投资回报率总是下降。

幸运的是,current usability ROI is so stupendously big(花费10%可获得83%)这可能会减少更多,对企业高管来说仍然是一个有利的建议。当然,最终,我们会达到这样一个点,即进一步的可用性投资将比其他花费公司资金的方式具有更低的投资回报率。但这一点可能是20至30年后的未来。

完整报告

这个full可用性投资回报(ROI)报告is available for download, with before-after analysis of all 72 case studies.