On the Web, the initial user experience is especially important: people — with ten years' experience using other sites — will be novices with respect to your site the first time they click through from a search engine. Unless your site meets their expectations and can be understood immediately, they'll beat a fast retreat back to the sites they already know.

Expert User Testing: The Basics


  1. 招募代表用户
  2. Give them现实的任务
  3. Ask them to响亮(当你闭嘴时,避免用不合时宜的提示偏见他们的行为)

One difference from testing with novices is that the "realistic tasks" are obviously more advanced for expert users. You can have them dig deeper and solve larger and more difficult problems.

A second difference might not be as obvious: We almost always ask users to他们的想法言语在运行的独白时,他们使用设计。这个想法的过程告诉你人们如何解释设计元素,无论是令人困惑的,哪些是引人注目的或排斥。虽然测试情况有点人为,但一个好的辅导员和吸引力的任务可以让用户暂停怀疑,从而告诉你不公路的真理。

然而,专家用户导致思考的困难 - 大声研究:

  • Skilled behavior is often automated behavior (as discussed further in our seminar on the human mind and usability). When people are unaware of how they think about a certain behavior, they can't verbalize the reasoning behind their actions. For example, consider how you drive a car: If a facilitator asked you to think aloud during your drive to work, you typically wouldn't describe the steps you take to make the car go faster or slower. But, if you usually drive an automatic and were given a stick shift for the study, you'd probably verbalize your thoughts about using the clutch. In contrast, if you drive a car with manual transmission every day, odds are that you wouldn't mention the clutch during the think-aloud session. To get around this problem with expert users, you can use more elaborate usability methods to slowly (and tediously) analyze slow-motion replays of the interaction and thereby deduce what was going in those cases where users didn't tell you.
  • Expert users can turn into design critics and bend your ear with their opinions on the product (since they know it so well), as opposed to staying in the user role and engaging with the actual features. Gracefully accept their comments, while remembering that what people say and what they do can be very different. The reason for usability studies is to collect behavioral data, so guide participants back to the role of using the design as fast as possible.


如果您正在重新设计现有产品,那么您就在运气中:野外已经有专家用户。所有你需要的是招募他们来参观一两个小时。您可以遵循传统方法来招聘测试参与者,有一些曲折。通常,注册客户列表可以短路冷呼叫研究前景的繁琐过程。有时,您还可以与关键帐户的管理者合作,联系其产品的一些用户。(如果是这样,强调你想要普通用户 - 不是“明星表演者”,管理者经常想炫耀。)

Other options for recruiting expert users include industry tradeshows (particularly if your company has a booth), user group meetings, and social media (especially your own site's social features).






一秒,更好,方法是发展新的专家fast-tracked trainingof new users. You can assign a personal tutor to take test participants through the design and answer all of their questions. (Usually, we don't answer users' questions, because we don't want to bias their behavior, but if we're testing expert use and not initial use, we care less about how people overcome early difficulties. Thus, coaching is allowed.)




The master guideline for all user research is to approximate the real world as closely as possible. So, if you have a manual or offer a training course, it's fine to let your test participants access these resources.






对于专家用户来说,可用性研究的改进通常更低。好消息是人类是令人难以置信的灵活性and adaptive creatures. We live from Greenland to Equatorial Guinea and we can use Linux if we try hard enough. People who've used a software product for a decade will have invented workarounds and tricks to overcome its design flaws. And they will have internalized many of the arbitrary rules behind the UI. Many people are gluttons for punishment and grow to like bad design so much that they resist the change to something better.





  • 用户是新手一小段时间,但专家很长一段时间- 至少适用于他们继续使用的任何产品。因此,更好的专家可用性的(较小)的益处继续累积多年,并最终将总结一下新手改进的一次性收益。
  • 有些产品很大安装基地拥有一大堆现有用户,预计不会变得太大。要计算任何可用性的真实增益,请通过用户的数量乘以每用户获得,因此这种情况也有利于专注于专家用户。
  • 有些产品见重,重复使用。用于呼叫中心代表的应用程序是一个经典的例子。其他产品可能只看到间歇性使用,但良好的对比用户性能差的影响是巨大的。工业控制室的错误处理是这里的一个很好的例子。在这些情况下,用户可能会受到高度培训,并且新手可用性较少,但对指甲专业可用性至关重要。
  • 最后,沉重的用户可能会解释一个不成比例的大量share of profits,特别是在培养忠诚客户的电子商务网站上。在这些网站上,您想要频繁,大购买特别容易。