理解有效的最有效方法以及在界面中不存在的方式是watch people use it。This is the essence ofusability testing。当。。。的时候正确的参与者尝试逼真的活动,您可以获得定性见解what is causing users to have trouble。These insights help you determine how to improve the design.

此外,你可以衡量用户完成正确的任务百分比as a way to communicate a site’s overall usability.

What Users Need To Be Able To Do

In order to observe participants you need to give them something to do. These assignments are frequently referred to as任务。(During testing I like to call them “activities“为了避免让参与者觉得他们正在被测试)。

而不是简单地将测试用户订购“do x”没有解释,而是最好在短时间内达到请求scenariothat sets the stage for the action and provides a bit of explanation and context forwhythe user is "doing X."

Before you can write the task scenarios used in testing, you have to come up with a list of general user goals that visitors to your site (or application) may have. Ask yourself:每个用户的最重要的事情是什么must be able to accomplish on the site?

For example, nngroup.com usersmustbe able to accomplish 3 main goals:

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Engage Users with Task Scenarios

Once you’ve figured out what the users' goals are, you need to formulate task scenarios that are appropriate for usability testing. A task scenario is the action that you ask the participant to take on the tested interface. For example, a task scenario could be:

You're planning a vacation to New York City, March 3 − March 14. You need to buy both airfare and hotel. Go to the American Airlines site and jetBlue Airlines site and see who has the best deals.

Task scenarios need to提供上下文so用户使用界面并假装履行业务或个人任务,就像他们在家或办公室的那样。

书面任务差不多关注强制用户与特定功能进行交互,而不是看到用户选择使用该接口。情景将任务放入上下文中,因此,理想情况下,激励参与者。

以下3个任务写入技巧将提高您的可用性研究的结果。

1. Make the Task Realistic

User goal: Browse product offerings and purchase an item.
糟糕的任务:购买一双橙色耐克跑鞋。
Better task:Buy a pair of shoes for less than $40.

要求参与者做一些他通常不会做的事情会让他试图完成任务而没有真正参与界面。书面任务不佳使参与者更加困难,暂停对实际拥有任务的疑虑。在该示例中,参与者应具有基于自己标准的产品进行比较的自由。

提出现实的任务将取决于您招聘的参与者以及您测试的功能。例如,如果您测试酒店网站,您需要确保参与者将成为他们的家庭负责旅行研究和保留的人。

或者,您可以决定让参与者定义自己的任务。例如,您可以招募在购买汽车过程中的用户,让他们在会议期间继续研究,而不是给予他们任务场景。(实地研究非常适合在自己的环境中观察用户,因为他们执行自己的任务,但实地研究更昂贵且耗时。)

2. Make the Task Actionable

用户目标:查找电影和显示时间。
糟糕的任务:You want to see a movie Sunday afternoon. Go to www.fandango.com and tell me where you’d click next.
Better task:Use www.fandago.com to find a movie you’d be interested in seeing on Sunday afternoon.

It’s best to要求用户执行操作, rather than asking themhowthey would do it. If you ask “How would you find a way to do X?” or “Tell me how you would do Y” the participant is likely to answer in words, not actions. And unfortunately,people’s self-reported data is not as accurate就像他们实际使用系统一样。此外,让他们通过他们所做的事情谈谈,不允许您观察使用界面随附的缓和或挫折。

You can tell that the task isn’t actionable enough if the participant turns to the facilitator, takes her hand off the mouse, and says something like “I would first click here, and then there would be a link to where I want to go, and I’d click on that.”

3. Avoid Giving Clues and Describing the Steps

User goal: Look up grades.
糟糕的任务:You want to see the results of your midterm exams. Go to the website, sign in, and tell me where you would click to get your transcript.
Better task:查找中期考试的结果。

Step descriptions often contain hidden clues as to how to use the interface. For example, if you tell someone to click onBenefitsin the main menu, you won’t learn if that menu label is meaningful to her. These tasks bias users’ behavior and give you less useful results.

包含界面中使用的术语的任务场景也偏向用户。如果您对学习有兴趣,如果人们可以注册时事通讯,您的网站有一个标记的大按钮Sign up for newsletter, you should not phrase the task as "注册这家公司的每周通讯。“最好使用这样的任务,如:”找到一种方法来获取有关正在定期发送到您的电子邮件的信息的信息。”

避免界面中使用的单词并不总是容易或自然的,甚至可以对用户困惑,特别是如果您尝试推导迂回方法来描述已经具有标准,众所周知的名称的某些东西。在这种情况下,您可能希望使用既定术语。避免线索并不意味着模糊。例如,比较以下2个任务:

糟糕的任务:Make an appointment with your dentist.
Better task:Make an appointment for next Tuesday at 10am with your dentist, Dr. Petersen.

You might think that this second task violates the guideline for tasks to be realistic if the user's dentist isn't really Dr. Petersen. However, this is one of those cases in which users are very good at suspending disbelief and proceeding to make the appointment just as they would with a differently-named dentist. You might need to have the user pretend to be seeing Dr. Petersen if you're测试纸质原型or other early prototype design that includes only a few dentists.

Conclusion

If the task scenario is too vague, the participant will likely ask you for more information or will want to confirm that she is on the right path. Provide the participant with all the information that she needs to complete a task, without telling her where to click. During a usability test, mimic the real world as much as possible. Recruit representative users and ensure that each task scenario:

  1. 对于人们在自己的时间,人们在自己的时间时,人们如何使用这些系统是现实的和典型的
  2. 鼓励用户与界面进行交互
  3. doesn’t give away the answer.