As UX professionals, it is our job to advocate on behalf of our users. To do it, we must understand them. Understanding our users means building empathy for human beings who experience the product or service we create.

努力练习同理心,许多团队错误地练习同情。虽然这些词有不同的含义,但团队往往不正确地使用同情和同理化。这种混乱导致他们的理解巨大差距,无法解决真正的人类需求。

本文的目标是帮助您反思您当前的UX练习 - 您是否在不知不觉中练习怜悯和同情而不是同理心?

What Is Sympathy?

Definition:同情是对别人痛苦的承认。

同情通常是反应(以悲伤或怜悯的形式)到另一个人的困难或困境。然而,与同理心相比,你和另一个人之间的距离仍然存在距离,他们的逆境不是你个人相关或期望分享的东西。你不设想自己遭受用户的问题(你现在绝对不分享那些问题),就像你认识到一些用户有问题一样。

在UX中,Sympathy仅限于承认用户正在进行艰难的情景,任务或旅程。如果我们对我们的用户同情,并不意味着我们把自己放在鞋子里,感受到他们的痛苦或烦恼。例如,当我们为失明的人设计可访问的网站时,我们可能会通过承认他们的潜在挑战表示同情:

  • “如果你看不到图表,那么很难消耗内容。”
  • “这个字体有点小而亮。对于老年人来说,这可能很难。“
  • “用屏幕阅读器导航这个网站很难。”

确实,一些同情比没有人好。例如,最好对用户同情更好技术技能有限而不是鄙视他们的缺点。然而,设计的真正目标并不对用户不好,但赋予他们。例如,这就是为什么我们不建议冗长的错误消息关于我们对错误的遗憾。相反,我们建议错误消息允许用户快速纠正问题and move on.

What Is Empathy?

同理心是一个超越同情的一步,并且在自然界更加复杂。

Definition:共情能够完全理解镜像,然后分享另一个人的表达,需要和动机。

In UX, empathy enables us to understand not only our users’ immediate frustrations, but also their hopes, fears, abilities, limitations, reasoning, and goals. It allows us to dig deep into our understanding of the user and create solutions that will not only solve a need, but effectively improve our users’ lives by removing unnecessary pain or friction. Instead of just designing an accessible website, practicing empathy is using a screen reader, blindfolded, in order to complete a task on your own website.

  • “我正在努力在网站上找到自己的方式。”
  • “这比我想象的要更加强硬。”
  • “我将倡导需要进行的变化。”

同理心的谱

没有坚定的门槛,标志着一个人从同情同情的过渡。相反,两者之间的关系最好在一个怜悯(最断开和抽象的同情版本的同情版本)的频谱上最合适的是另一端(同情和体现的更联系和体现的版本)。

Sarah Gibbons的同理心的谱

同理心的频谱包括怜悯,同情,同理心和同情心。怜悯和同情需要没有努力或理解,同时同情和同情需要努力了解和参与产生积极的变化。

怜悯只是当你对别人感到遗憾的时候。你不喜欢他们不幸的情况,也许你甚至会做一些事情来纠正这种情况,但大多是为了让自己的令人不快的感受消失。

在频谱的另一端是同情心,您将用户与用户视为独立演员的感觉,而不是对象。(“演员”中的上下文意味着我们认识到用户有自己的目的,想要和需求,并且他们表现得以满足theywant to accomplish, not what we think they ought to do or want. Thus, we don't impose our priorities or preferences upon the users, which would be an act of objectifying them that's more characteristic of sympathy.) Compassion is a call to action derived from empathy — when our understanding of another’s thoughts or feelings give us the compulsion, duty, or desire to help change that person’s situation for the better.

如何在ux练习同理心

  • 使用定性研究方法

Practicing empathy in UX must begin with user research. We must set aside ego and assumptions and immerse ourselves in research. Qualitative methods, such as user interviews, cognitive mapping, anddiary studies,允许我们挖掘用户行为,动机和疑虑。

Remember to use开放式问题。当你要求用户向您解释事物时,他们经常揭示令人惊讶的mental models解决问题的策略,希望和恐惧。例如:

What makes you happy?代替Are you happy?

你的家人如何影响你?代替你靠近你的家人吗?

什么会让你更强大?代替告诉我你的弱点。

Practice empathy as you conduct research. Be aware that you don’t know what people are going through and what will trigger a memory or be difficult for them.

  • 招聘不同的用户

可以访问您的研究计划的一部分。此方法允许您测试您的假设并探索使用实际最终用户改进的潜在机会。使用well-known organizations,国家章节, or当地培训中心帮助您招募残疾参与者。

  • 让您的团队观看研究会话,看看真正的用户

进行研究时,邀请所有团队成员,以及关键利益相关者观察会议。Doing this vastly increases the potential of empathy, and the corresponding acceptance of research findings. Seeing is believing. And seeing and interacting with the user live is even more powerful.

在邀请您的同事到用户测试之前,您可能需要花一些时间福音调查UX研究在您的团队或组织内。确保每个人都知道用户体验设计的深度和您可以完成的内容:保存时间,最小的返工和解决的产品真正的用户需要

确保您在人们可以访问它们的地方的用户会话中录制,以防自己观察它们,以防他们无法观察到生活。

  • 每当向利益相关者提出研究发现时,使用用户视频

Supplement your findings and recommendations with video clips showing how users actually perform that task. Not only will your findings be more compelling, but you’ll also be building general empathy towards your audience. Make sure you show a variety of people in your videos (it shouldn’t be hard if you followed our first guideline and recruited a diverse participant group) — with different backgrounds, different demographics, and different abilities.

  • 制作同理心地图

同理化地图capture users’ emotions, hopes, and fears and distill your knowledge of the users into one place. An empathy map can help you discover gaps in your current knowledge and identify the types of research needed to address it.

更重要的是,一个同情的地图可以帮助他人对用户变得同情,因为它可以作为整个项目的真理来源,并保护它免受偏见或毫无根据的假设。同理心是一个复杂的技能,同情地图降低了未对准的风险,因为每个人都有相同的视觉基线。

  • 投资一个不同的团队

“你不是用户”可能听起来像一个陈词滥调,但它是人类心理学的一部分that others think and behave in the same way that we do。如果你的团队的每个人都是男性,年轻的比30, and with a tech background, you’ll end up with designs that will implicitly favor that user group.

Recruit team members with a variety of backgrounds and demographics. That will not guarantee empathy for users, but will at least be a first step in the right direction. Diversity must go wide to include experiences, skills, and attitudes acquired and evolved over each employee’s lifetime — known as ‘acquired diversity.’ In broad terms, as defined by Chloe Heath, acquired diversity is a person’s experience of the world and the cultural quirks accumulated over a long period.

  • 构建Empathy进入您的设计指南

在这个不同的团队中,创建鼓励同理心的协议。例如,Caroline Jarrett的问题协议在每个问题和每个问题背后使用一致的意图和优先级,而不是向用户询问所有可能的问题(其中一些可能让用户感到不充分或不舒服,带来坏记忆等)。

If you’ve been with your team for a while, you may have a good idea of the types of erroneous assumptions it tends to make. Create specific guidelines that can act as a check point against your team’s bad habits, especially when it comes to empathy. For example, if your team is prone to not changing designs that don’t work for specific users, consider introducing a guideline that can correct this behavior. The guideline could beEach design must be tested with a diverse user group that maps onto our target demographics。代替Let’s validate this design, say Let’s learn what works and what doesn’t work well for users and why

结论

UX的同理心是必不可少的。这是我们用户的思想和我们最大的资产作为UX专业人士。同理心使我们能够用意图设计,介绍焦点和清晰度,代表我们的用户倡导,并挑战我们的假设。

(有关同情和同理心的差异,请参阅Neel Burton's同情vs同情。)