Ever had a stakeholder shut down your project or block UX-design efforts? This frustrating situation may be avoided. A significant part of UX involves working with and alongside stakeholders. In particular, in organizations with low UX maturity, UX professionals have to constantly evangelize to stakeholders about their work, why it matters, and why they should be allowed to continue doing it! While we’ve written before that这是一个好主意与stak合作eholders和toinvite them to observe research,利益相关方分析为利益相关方管理提供了结构化方法。

Stakeholder analysis is particularly useful for UX professionals working on new projects with new stakeholders or for UX teams looking to improve the他们组织的UX成熟by increasing the knowledge of (and adoption of) user-centered ways of working.

谁是利益相关者?

A stakeholder is anyone who has interest in your project or with whom you need to work with in some way to complete the project. Your CEO, the marketing director, the account manager, or even your manager could all be stakeholders. Stakeholders can be internal to the organization or external to it. If you’re not sure who your stakeholders are, start by asking yourself who is interested in your project and who has power, influence, or control over it. These questions should lead to a long list of stakeholders.

Stakeholder Analysis

利益相关者分析包括评估每个股份holder’s potential to impact your project — negativelyposit!与其他人相比,您的一些利益相关者将比其他利益相关者的利益相关者产生更多的利益攸关方 - 管理策略,而且需要对那些有影响力的利益攸关方适用。

利益相关者映射用于执行利益相关者分析. There are many ways you can map stakeholders; one of the most popular mapping methods is the power-interest matrix (often referred to asMendelow’s Matrixas the earliest version is attributed to the researcher Aubrey Mendelow).

一个2x2矩阵,标记在垂直轴上的电源和水平轴的兴趣。矩阵分为四个象限。顺时针,从原点,象限标记为以下内容:监视器,保持满意,管理,并通知通知。
权力符号矩阵沿两个轴的利益相关者,从低到大功率和低于高兴趣。利益相关者陷入四个象限中的一个。每个象限都要求不同的利益相关者管理策略。

Plotting your stakeholders on the power-interest matrix provides 4 categories of stakeholders and corresponding management strategies.

Manage closely:Stakeholders that fall in the top right quadrant are the most important; they are key stakeholders who are directly interested in your project and exert great influence over the outcome. For example, maybe they make resourcing decisions. Or, your CEO is interested in a redesign and would like to contribute with personal ideas. These stakeholders need to be managed closely; without doing so, they can advertently or inadvertently stop, hinder, or block your project. When managed well, these stakeholders can become promoters of your project, making success a likely outcome.

Keep satisfied:Stakeholders found in the top-left quadrant are referred to aslatents;他们目前对您的项目不感兴趣,但他们有权大大影响您的项目。确保这些利益攸关方很开心是很重要的。如果他们发现你的工作会影响自己,他们可能会涉及。您可能希望与他们咨询以确保观察到他们的兴趣。

Keep informed:Stakeholders who are interested in your project but have little power over it should be kept informed. They should be invited to research, copied into debrief emails, and invited to design critiques.

监控:It’s not worth spending a lot of time engaging or managing stakeholders that fall into the bottom left quadrant because they have little interest in your work or power over it. However, circumstances could change, and they could move into one of the other quadrants, and so you should monitor them regularly.

利益相关者在项目中的权力和兴趣可以在整个项目中改变。领导力的变化可能导致展望和兴趣的急剧转变,导致利益攸关方从网格的一侧移动到另一侧。所以,stakeholder mapping is not a one-time activity;return to stakeholder maps frequently and update your strategies accordingly.

Notice that the stakeholder-management strategies listed in the grid aren’t specific. The best strategy will depend on the stakeholder and on the corporate culture in your organization. This is why it’s important to carry out stakeholder interviews to figure out what communication and engagement strategies will be most effective. Understanding what your stakeholders care about and what interests them will help you best to communicate with them. In addition, interviews with stakeholders may reveal the extent of their knowledge of UX. If a stakeholder has little knowledge or exposure to UX (and high power or high interest) then you may need to spend extra time to communicate basic UX concepts or explain theUX工作的投资回报率.

电源和兴趣矩阵中缺少的一个组件是attitude. This aspect is important to understand, so you can prioritize your time and energy. Preaching to the choir isn’t going to ensure long-term success; however, converting a UX sceptic with a lot of power can help you make inroads and garner further support. If you don’t know a stakeholder’s attitude to your work or project, then a stakeholder interview may be needed. You can map your stakeholders’ attitudes as simply positive, negative, or neutral, or label each stakeholder with ‘champion’, ‘supporter’, ‘critic’, and so on.

为了捕捉态度,您可以由矩阵中的每个利益相关者包含一个'+'或' - ',以表示他们对项目的态度是积极的还是消极的。如果您有否定的主要利益攸关方,那么这些是您应该在转换中最多的利益相关者。

Alternatively, use a table to list power and interest alongside attitude. You can create a column for current attitude and desired attitude to highlight the gap and where opportunities lie in improving stakeholder relationships. (Note that not everyone needs to become a promoter of your project; some people with low power and interest can be neutral.)

Stakeholder Power Interest Current attitude Desired attitude
Jane Smith, account manager 高的 Low Neutral Positive
Joe Bloggs, product manager 高的 高的 Positive Positive
Javinder Singh,Tech Architect Low Low Negative Neutral

Once you’ve performed your stakeholder analysis, the next step is to form a communication (or management) plan. This plan details what strategy you will take with each stakeholder; for example, will you have weekly one-on-one meetings, or will you just send them a quick email every other week? Creating a communication plan ensures your strategies are not forgotten and can be monitored. You can assess if your strategy is effective and improve it going forward.

概括

利益相关者管理从利益相关者分析开始 - 仔细考虑您的利益相关者是谁以及他们对项目的影响程度。将您的利益相关者映射以了解您的利益相关者对您的工作的哪些力量,兴趣和态度。使用这些利益相关者地图建立适当的利益相关者 - 管理策略,以重点努力提高UX工作的影响。你可以下载示例利益相关方映射工具below to get you started with stakeholder analysis.

Reference

Mendelow, A.L., 1991. Stakeholder Mapping,Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Information Systems, Cambridge, MA (Cited in Scholes,1998).

Resources

Stakeholder Mapping Template(Google Sheets)

Stakeholder Mapping Template(.xlsx)