我们每天都遇到并处理大量信息。想想今天你遇到的所有信息 - 它实际上是多少相关性和对你有用的?

Most of the information we encounter is噪声— it’s irrelevant to our current need. Conversely, the information that is relevant and useful to us (the information we’re looking for or want) is thesignal.

定义:在人机交互中,信噪比represents the ratio of relevant to irrelevant information in an interface or communication channel.

In a user interface, the “information” involved in this ratio could be anything — text content, visual elements, or animation. Essentially, anything that users have to process could count as signal or noise. To improve the efficiency of communicating information through your designs and help users complete their tasks, aim for a high signal–to–noise ratio.

信号或噪音?

虽然信号和噪音的定义很简单,但达到真实设计时,并不总是容易识别差异。不是每个用户都会具有相同的目标,所以恰好是“信号”和“噪声”的计数将变化。一个人的信号可能是另一个人的噪音。因此,取决于谁看起来,UI的信噪比可能更高或更低,以及该人正在尝试的内容。

United Airlines的主页有几种可能在某些情况下发出的元素,但其他噪音。

联合航空公司的主页是几个不同任务的起点。例如:

  • Booking a flight
  • Checking in for a booked flight
  • Looking up details about a booked flight

For a user who wants to book a new flight, the blueBook Travel块将是最强的信号 - 与她最相关的接口的一部分。但对于想要找到关于他已经预订的航班的细节的人来说,Book Travel块只是噪音,而且我的旅行section and the登入link are signal.

Some of the elements in this interface, however, will be noise to all users, irrespective of which of the three primary tasks they are doing; these include:

  • 联合信用卡的广告
  • 底部的装饰飞机
  • the网站反馈沿着页面右侧链接

In an ideal world (from an HCI perspective, at least), we should remove any content or UI elements that are not relevant for any of the tasks supported on the site. Taken to the extreme, the goal of a high signal–to–noise ratio is closely related to极简主义- 一种Web设计趋势,旨在通过删除不必要的元素或内容来简化接口。然而,UI元素可以提供简单的通信或任务效率以外的功能.

除了传达信息外,我们还希望我们的接口在视觉上吸引人,并唤起用户的某种情绪。我们希望炫耀我们的品牌,需要为业务目标提供服务(如推广某些产品)。随着这些额外的目标,我们应该aim for a reasonable signal–to–noise ratiorather than seeking to exclude in an absolutist manner all ‘irrelevant’ parts.

Note, however, that there some things that are “noise” to everyonefail to serve some other purpose — for example, gratuitous分散注意力的动画并且惹恼用户,或巨大的图像,在不通过大量信息的情况下服用大量空间。留意任何不为您的用户目标或您的业务目标提供服务的元素,并考虑消除那些。

增加信噪比

在平衡用户和业务优先级至关重要的同时,通过关注您的内容并使用强大的视觉层次结构,可以实现高信噪比。

简单和优先内容

To improve the signal–to–noise ratio, start with a clear content strategy to help you prioritize the information you want to convey.

在开始为页面创建内容之前,或修改现有页面之前,请考虑您的页面访问者的需求以及您必须与之通信的内容。有一旦您有一个候选主题列表,创建内容层次结构:优先考虑您提出的想法和主题。通过此优先级排序的一种有用方法是通过使用内容框架.

以来人们没有仔细阅读, it’s important to be sure that every piece of text on a page has some importance to at least some of your users. Avoid redundant content, as well as large文本块,这对用户扫描并快速将其信号与噪声分开的具有挑战性。考虑使用介绍页面上的文本inverted pyramid style- 首先从最重要的信息开始,并在页面上进一步添加漂亮了解详细信息。帮助用户避免F-Pattern.通过提供良好的格式,粗体关键词和项目符号。

来自almanac.com的本文不适合扫描,不允许人们轻松地将重要元素(信号)与支持者分开。本节了存储唐菖蒲植被使用子弹,这很好。不幸的是,子弹不帮助用户区分部分。在每个段落中的密钥短语上使用暗文之间的更多空白和使用粗体文本将帮助用户找到其信号内容。
这篇文章来自thespruce.com是在同一主题,唐菖蒲花。这里的格式强调了比农民的almanac更好的信号。每个子弹周围都有白色空间,主题句子放在每个段落的开头,并以粗体显示。请注意advertisements这可能对所有用户发出噪音,保存在右侧铁路中,用户希望他们成为。

视觉层次结构

对于每个页面,请考虑不同元素的重要性(是否or content), and then help your users pick out the signal and skip over the noise by using a visual hierarchy that reflects the relative importance of these elements. In other words, anything that is highly relevant for most users should have a high visual weight.

There are a lot of methods for creating visual hierarchy. For example:

  • making the font large and bold
  • changing the color of a call to action
  • adding an icon
  • 增加按钮的大小

In general, important elements should be larger, bolder, or in a contrasting color relative to the elements around them. Just keep in mind: you should use these techniques sparingly. Only highlight the essential information, to make sure the page doesn’t become overwhelming.

PNC储蓄账户的此登陆页使用多种策略来传达视觉层次结构,不同颜色,大小和文本重量。橙色颜色用于最重要的元素(呼叫动作按钮,标题和副标题),它与页面其他部分中使用的灰色和灰色蓝色强烈形成对比。此方法可帮助用户快速识别对它们最重要的页面的组件。不幸的是,橙色也用于纯粹的装饰,嘈杂,而不是非常有意义的钱包图。

动态噪声

设计A.用户界面与设计打印不同collateral. Even though the basic principle of signal vs. noise applies to both interactive designs and static designs, there are some additional issues to consider for the online medium and other user interfaces. In particular, what counts as noise can change from moment to moment, as the user’s task changes.

考虑,例如,网站上的导航:大部分时间,导航UI是噪声,因为用户专注于页面内容。但是,当用户使用当前页面完成并且想要移动到另一个页面时,导航突然变为信号。这种紧张张力可以通过a解决一致的设计,因此在站点上的所有页面上以相同的方式显示导航。用户将快速学习忽略一贯设计的网站上的导航区域(直到他们需要它,当然 - 当时用户将快速找到导航的时间)。通过这种方式,虽然导航将保持噪音,但它是良性的噪音,不会打扰用户。相比之下,从页面到一个地方反弹的嘈杂的设计元素肯定会充当恶劣的噪音并打扰用户更多。

结论

Interfaces with high signal–to–noise ratios improve communication with users and make their tasks easier. Strive to reduce the noise and make the signal stand out, while balancing organizational priorities and goals. In this way, users are likely to find the information they need easily and complete their tasks.