服务设计是规划和组织商业资源(人,道具和流程)的活动,以便(1)直接改善员工的经验,并间接地,客户的经验。服务蓝图是服务设计过程中使用的主要映射工具。

什么是服务蓝图?

Definition:Aservice blueprint是一种可视化不同服务组件之间的关系 - 人,道具(物理或数字证据)和进程的关系 - 直接与特定客户旅程中的接触点直接相关联。

Think of service blueprints as a part two tocustomer journey maps。Similar to customer-journey maps, blueprints are instrumental in complex scenarios spanning many service-related offerings. Blueprinting is an ideal approach to experiences that are omnichannel, involve multiple touchpoints, or require a crossfunctional effort (that is, coordination of multiple departments).

服务蓝图对应于特定的客户旅程和与该旅程相关的特定用户目标。这个旅程可以在范围内变化。因此,对于相同的服务,如果有几种不同的场景可以容纳多种不同的场景,则可能有多个蓝图。例如,在餐厅业务中,您可能会为餐厅提供戒烟的食物任务,您可能会有独立的服务蓝图。

服务蓝图应始终与业务目标保持一致:减少冗余,改善员工经验,或融合偏离恐怖流程。

服务蓝图的好处

服务蓝图为组织提供了全面了解其服务和潜在的资源和流程 - 看到和看不见的是用户 - 这使得可以。专注于这一更大的理解(以及更典型的可用性方面和个人接触点设计)为业务提供了战略利益。

Blueprints are treasure maps that help businessesdiscover weaknesses。Poor user experiences are often due to an internal organizational shortcoming — a weak link in the ecosystem. While we can quickly understand what may be wrong in a user interface (bad design or a broken button), determining the root cause of a systemic issue (such as corrupted data or long wait times) is much more difficult. Blueprinting exposes the big picture and offers a map of dependencies, thus allowing a business to discover a weak leak at its roots.

以同样的方式,蓝图帮助identify opportunities for optimization。The visualization of relationships in blueprints uncovers potential improvements and ways to eliminate redundancy. For example, information gathered early on in the customer’s journey could possibly be repurposed later on backstage. This approach has three positive effects: (1) customers are delighted when they are recognized the second time — the service feels personal and they save time and effort; (2) employee time and effort are not wasted regathering information; (3) no risk of inconsistent data when the same question isn’t asked twice.

蓝图在协调复杂服务时最有用,因为它bridges crossdepartment efforts。通常,部门的成功由它拥有的接触点来衡量。但是,用户在整个旅程中遇到许多接触点,不知道(或关心)哪个部门拥有哪个接触点。虽然部门可以满足其目标,但可能无法达到大局,组织级别目标。蓝图迫使企业捕获在整个客户旅程中内部发生的事情 - 让他们洞察分散和依赖性,这些部门无法看到。

NNG服务蓝图示例
An example blueprint for an appliance retailer

Key Elements of a Service Blueprint

服务蓝图采用不同的视觉形式,比其他形式更多的图形。无论视觉形式和范围如何,每个服务蓝图都包含一些关键要素:

  • 客户行动

客户在与服务交互时执行的步骤,选择,活动和互动,以达到特定目标。客户行动源于研究或客户旅程地图。

在我们的Appliance零售商的蓝图中,客户行动包括访问该网站,访问商店并浏览设备,讨论具有销售助理,设备购买,获取交货日期通知的选项和功能,最终收到设备。

  • Frontstage actions

鉴于客户直接发生的操作。这些行动可以是人对人类或人机的动作。人类行为是联系员工(与客户互动的人)的步骤和活动表演。当客户与自助服务技术(例如,移动应用程序或ATM)交互时,执行人机到计算机操作。

在我们的设备公司的例子中,台前的一个ctions are directly linked to customer’s actions: the store worker meets and greets customers, a chat assistant on the website informs them which units have which features, a trader partner contacts customers to schedule delivery.

Note that there is not always a parallel frontstage action for every customer touchpoint. A customer can interact directly with a service without encountering a frontstage actor, like it’s the case with the appliance delivery in our example blueprint. Each time a customer interacts with a service (through an employee or via technology), a真理的时刻发生。在这些真理的​​时刻,顾客判断您的质量,并决定未来购买。

  • 后台动作

Steps and activities that occur behind the scenes to support onstage happenings. These actions could be performed by a backstage employee (e.g., a cook in the kitchen) or by a frontstage employee who does something not visible to the customer (e.g., a waiter entering an order into the kitchen display system).

在我们的Appliance-Company示例中,发生了众多后台操作:仓库员工输入并更新库存编号到销售点软件;运输员工检查单位的病情和质量;聊天助手与工厂联系以确认交货时间;员工以最新的单位维护和更新公司网站;营销团队创造广告材料。

  • 流程

Internal steps, and interactions that support the employees in delivering the service.

该元素包括所有必须发生的内容所发生的内容。家电公司的流程包括信用卡验证,定价,从工厂的商店向商店提供单位,写作质量测试等。

在服务蓝图中,关键元素被组织成带有分开它们的线的群集。有三条主要线条:

  1. The互动线描绘了客户与组织之间的直接互动。
  2. The能见度线separates all service activities that are visible to the customer from those that are not visible. Everything frontstage (visible) appears above this line, while everything backstage (not visible) appears below this line.
  3. Theline of internal interaction将联系人员工与不直接与客户/用户互动的人分开。

服务蓝图的最后一层是证据,这是由蓝图中任何人交换的道具和地点。证据可以参与前台和后台过程和动作。

在我们的家电示例中,证据包括设备本身,标志,物理商店,网站,教程视频或电子邮件收件箱。

NNG服务蓝图键元素图
服务蓝图的关键要素

辅助元素包括在服务蓝图中

根据需要引入其他元素,蓝图可以适应上下文和业务目标:

箭头

箭头are a key element of service blueprinting. They indicate relationships, and more importantly, dependencies. A single arrow suggests a linear, one-way exchange, while a double arrow suggests the need for agreement and codependency.

时间

如果时间是服务中的主要变量,则每个客户操作的估计持续时间应该在蓝图中表示。

法规或政策

任何指责流程如何完成(食品法规,安全政策等)的任何特定的政策或法规都可以添加到您的蓝图中。此信息将允许我们了解可以在优化时无法更改。

Emotion

类似于用户的情绪如何在客户旅程地图中代表,员工的情绪可以在蓝图中表示。(在下面的例子中通过绿色和红色面部显示情绪。)员工在哪里沮丧?员工在哪里幸福和动力?如果您已经有一些有关挫折的定性数据(可能从内部调查或其他方法获得),您可以在蓝图中使用它们来帮助重点设计过程,更容易定位疼痛点。

指标

任何可以向蓝图提供上下文的成功度量都是一个好处,特别是如果买入是蓝图的目标。一个例子可能是在各种过程上花费的时间,或与他们相关的财务成本。这些数字将有助于业务识别由于误解或其他效率低下而浪费的时间或金钱。

NNg Service Blueprint Additional Elements Diagram
除了关键元素外,组织可以选择适当地将其他元素添加到其蓝图中。

结论

Service blueprints are companions to customer-journey maps: they help organizations see the big picture of how a service is implemented by the company and used by the customers. They pinpoint dependencies between employee-facing and customer-facing processes in the same visualization and are instrumental in identifying pain points, optimizing complex interactions, and ultimately saving money for the organization and improving the experience for its customers.

要了解更多信息,请查看我们的全日制课程服务蓝图