传统上,人类因素专家对计算机性能有相当严重的态度:他们的目标是最大吞吐量,通常在每分钟交易中测量。当计算机主要有效时,这种态度是合理的;在某些情况下,它仍然证明明智。例如,剃须一秒关闭时间的可用性改进需要一个目录辅助运算符,用于搜索一个电话号码的数据库,仅在美国每年节省数百万美元。

这performance-obsessed方法可用性勒d many early user interface experts to condemn the popular term "user friendly" with the argument that users didn't need "friendly" computers, they needed efficient designs that let them complete their tasks faster. I was as guilty as any of this bias, even as recently as the 1994 edition of my book可用性工程

不是严格的业务

Today, computers are used for many purposes in which the main goal is to please the user rather than maximize transactions. The dual victories of home computing and the World Wide Web last year have emphasized this lesson. However, even in business it is becoming common to cater to subjective whims and user satisfaction.

许多业务应用程序依赖所谓的自由裁量使用,其中员工具有替代,通常更昂贵的方式实现同​​一目标。虽然窗口系统设计仍然集中在传统的可用性上,但是像壁纸和定制的颜色方案一样的轻浮元素蠕动,以便为用户提供增强的乐趣 - 即使过度摆动定制选项是时间沉降,并且经常导致可读性降低。

严肃的乐趣

术语“诱人的用户界面”是创造的蒂姆瓦利(当时与Microsoft Research)描述旨在令人愉悦和吸引用户的设计。不幸的是,如何让软件诱人的知识并不多。这些天典型的建议表明您试图从电脑游戏中学习。

尽管我赞成公司购买我的游戏,我们需要更系统的方法,而不是试图在粉碎空间入侵者时吸收智慧。但陷阱取比着认真对待快乐。

在他的书中,我唱着身体电子,Fred Moody讲述了Microsoft产品团队的故事开发了一个孩子的CD-ROM百科全书,并找到了让孩子们对软件感兴趣的不同方式。一个例子特别突出了发展吸引力的困难。该团队进行了一种可用性研究,比较了一些主要屏幕的两种不同的想法:一组具有彩色图形的几乎抛光的例子,另一个具有彩色图形的初步设计,以黑白艺术家的草图的形式进行了初步设计。当然,所有的孩子都喜欢彩色屏幕,但对于比较界面样式的更深层次,这一结果对于更深的目标而言是毫无价值的。

虽然在进行比较研究之前很少可以完全细化多种设计,但您应该具有大约相同的波兰和浮华水平原型你想比较。

系统方法

少数几个案例研究中的诱人设计的系统方法是,通过荷兰飞利浦公司设计的Kay Hoffeester和同事(“产品设计中的性感那"诉讼ACM CHI96会议,ACM,纽约,第428-435页)。

飞利浦团队正在为18至29岁针对性的新寻呼机设计进行测试。团队从目标群体中提出了12名参与者,将他们发现感性的物体;然后,他们质疑潜在用户可以引出特定的单词来描述产品质量。本集团还被要求评估他们提到的物业的重要性。属性有机,人类那andbody评分最高;因此被选择为寻呼机设计的目标属性。

The team then asked the group to discuss pager properties. The team offered only a general description of a pager's functionality; they did not mention the word "pager" nor show pictures of an existing product. This precaution minimized the risk of preconceptions — such as "a pager must be square and black."

Photo of pager 1
图1。这个寻呼机可以作为吊坠佩戴;在衣服下面磨损时,输入信号是完全私密的。
Photo of pager 2
图2。该寻呼机具有有机形状,由织物覆盖。它充满了凝胶并涂在硅中;这使其具有沉重的感觉并且使其能够在携带时达到体温。

Based on the elicited ratings, the designers performed a factor analysis of the desired product properties, ending up with three factors, or dimensions along which the potential users differed. Using their design skills and intuition, the designers chose one of the dimensions as the most promising for spanning the user-preference space and developed two new pager designs. The figures here show the results: Figure 1 shows the pager for users with preferences of "flow, wear on the chest, inwards, secret, and mysterious"; Figure 2 for users with preferences of "heavy, fabric, plush, warmth."

In principle, the team should probably have designed products for all eight combinations of the three dimensions, but practical constraints are obviously a concern. That they needed two radically different products for a relatively targeted user group indicates that we may well need to be much more diverse in our design of seductive user interfaces than we were in designing traditional productivity applications.

进一步的探索

Because we are in the very early stage of discovering systematic methodologies for making user interfaces attractive, no hard guidelines are available. We do know that we must attack the problem with more empirical studies involving real users so we can determine what they like rather than design with our own biases in mind.

Experience so far indicates that high-quality graphics are the basis for the seductive experience, but are not enough in themselves. For example, sound effects can enhance the experience of graphics significantly, especially when they follow as a result of user actions (such as a satisfying thud when the user throws something into the trash).动画在屏幕上执行无限循环似乎比戏弄速度的动画更少诱人。但是,如果您尝试某些东西,并且没有任何发生,因此也很重要 - 诱惑的传统功能和可用性问题是令人沮丧的。