即使你有的话,寻找用户研究学习的正确参与者可能是挑战性的清楚地确定了您的目标受众。You can learnsomething来自几乎任何用户,但如果您的学习参与者具有与您的实际用户相同的行为,利益和知识,您将获得更有意义的见解。

使用筛选问题选择参与者

To recruit study participants, you should ask筛选问题which assess their background and characteristics. For example, if you’re designing a website about online games, you might need people who are interested in gaming. To assess this, you could simply ask them, “Do you play online games?”

但是筛选了提出研究目的明显的问题。如果人们可以容易地猜测研究是什么,有些人会令人想到的是夸大他们的回答,所以他们可以参加(并如果学习提供一个),他们可以参加(并获得激励)。当研究研究的部分筛查过程时,问题“你玩在线游戏吗?”将显然向受访者发出信号,即该研究是关于游戏的。人们猜测,如果他们承认他们不玩在线游戏,那么它们不太可能被邀请参加该研究。

因此,筛选问题有两个冲突的目标:

  1. 他们必须引起有关用户的特定信息。
  2. They should also avoid revealing specific information about the study.

实现两个目标都很棘手,但可以通过使用两种主要技术仔细准备筛选问题来完成:开放式问题distractors

开放式筛选问题

Anopen-ended question要求人们以自己的话语回答,而不是从预定义答案列表中选择。由于没有答案选择,人们难以猜到哪个答案是“正确的”。

Open-ended questions can be used to elicit details about past experiences. Rather than asking whether someone plays online games, you can ask “What activities do you do online?” and select participants who mention games.

Open-ended questions are also good for assessing:

  • 取消职业:If there are specific categories of people you need to exclude from the study, an open-ended question will be better than a multiple-choice one with answers that list the excluded categories. For example, unless yourdesign is for expert users,最好排除那些工作与您正在评估的设计有关的那些,因为他们的专业经验使它们与普通用户太不同。如果您正在评估一个关于旅行计划的网站,那么在旅游业工作的人可能会与普通旅行者完全不同的角度。开放式问题,“你的职业是什么?”更有可能获得准确的响应,而不是列出所有被排除的职业,并依赖于人们自我识别其中任何一个描述他们的工作。
  • Level of experience or interest:如果您需要招聘高度熟悉某项主题的人,开放式问题可以引出真实的细节,告诉您受访者是否具有相关的经验。如果您向人们询问他们多久播放在线游戏,那么对一年夸大的人夸大并声称她每周扮演几次的人很容易。但是,如果你要求她描述她最喜欢的一些游戏以及为什么她喜欢他们,你会很快能够区分核心游戏玩家,他们可以立即列出许多游戏的名字和细节,从几乎无法记住的人那里。(如果您正在编写筛选器问题,其他人会在面试中要问,请求受访者对这些开放式问题的答案被写入单词。)

然而,单独的开放式问题是不足以确保有效的参与者筛查,因为它们具有一些关键限制。如果您正在招募一个非常具体的利基行为,则开放式问题可能无法引出相关信息,因为某些人从事行为的人可能不会提及他们对一般问题的回应。此外,在纯粹的实际术语,对开放式问题的响应需要更多时间来生产和更多的时间来收集和分析。因为答案是免费的文本,所以您需要阅读每个受访者的陈述并评估其含义。在某些情况下可能无法进行此额外步骤(例如未修改的可用性研究往往允许人们在回答筛选问题后立即允许人们立即进行研究,没有时间允许研究人员查看筛选器响应)。

不要依赖“是或否”的问题:

“你考虑使用任一个短期的摩托车tal service again in the future?"

DO ask open-ended questions to elicit authentic experiences:

"Please describe the last time you rented a scooter."

分散的答案选择

可以立即评估多项选择题,使它们适用于未经发出的招聘;他们还允许您评估人们可能无法以开放式回应提及提及的具体行为。但是,避免揭示研究目的仍然很重要。为此,借用教师使用的技术进行多项选择测试:include distractors在答案选择中。分散的人是错误的答案选择,通过不正确的响应围绕它来伪装正确的答案。良好的分心剂看起来像他们可能是正确的回答 - 他们有助于区分真正了解正确答案的人,以及那些只是猜测的人,并且很可能选择一个吸引人的分心答案。

You can incorporate distractors into multiple-choice screening questions by providing answer choices that include both your target response and several equally plausible responses. The distractor answers should be realistic both as activities that people would do and as research topics for an organization. For example, if you’re recruiting people who are interested using a scooter-rental app, you might ask about scooters and include walking, ride sharing, and taxis as distractors. But hang gliding would不是be a good distractor, because it’s obviously not a reasonable transit option in an urban area, and also not a behavior so common that companies would conduct research about it.

For some questions, it will be appropriate to allow people to select more than one answer. Make sure to exclude respondents who select全部一个问题的答案 - (特别是如果他们对几个问题一再这样做)。选择所有选择是一个警告标志,这个人可能太渴望参与,选择选择更少选择的人会更加安全。

If you’re using a testing platform which allows asking only one or two screening questions, even a single, well-written screening question with good distractors can be effective at identifying which potential participants match your target audience.

不要要求易于猜测的多项选择问题:

If you needed to get to a meeting on the other side of downtown, about 2 miles away, which of the following would you consider doing to get to your meeting?
A. Walk
B.挂起滑行
C.租一辆滑板车

DO use plausible distractor answers to conceal the subject of the study:

If you needed to get to a meeting on the other side of downtown, about 2 miles away, which of the following would you consider doing to get to your meeting?
A. Walk
B. Rent a bike
C.租一辆滑板车
D.拿一个优步

结论

Finding the right test participants is important for any user-research project, but it becomes essential when you need to identify a specific type of user from within a large pool of general consumers. Screening is especially important if you’re looking for:

  1. 潜在的未来用户,谁尚未顾客,但可以在未来现实地成为客户
  2. 高度动机的用户,其对特定主题或活动的兴趣是如此强烈,他们的知识和行为与“平均”人的知识和行为显着不同

这些类型的用户通常是理想的目标受众,但使这些受众令人有价值的态度和经验往往难以使用多项选择题准确评估。仔细计划筛选问题令人困惑夸大和猜测,并确定真正符合目标受众的用户。

了解有关编写筛选问题和其他提示,以便在我们的免费报告中招聘用户研究参与者How to Recruit Participants for Usability Studies。这也是全天课程中涵盖的主题之一可用性测试