In our interviews and usability tests with domain experts, we learned that科学家和研究人员对内容有不同的期望as compared to a general audience.

为专业,受过高等教育的受众创造引人注目的数字内容,我们可以从写作形式获取灵感,他们经常花费最多的时间 - 传统的科学论文。但是,在为这种受众在线呈现科学内容时,只需提供现有的科学文章的PDF就不够好。通过在科学论文中保持良好的工作,改善在线阅读的研究发现,并改善了什么。

我们与科学家进行可用性测试,再保险searchers, and experts such as clinicians and engineers who use research findings in their work. We found that the following writing techniques work well with these audiences:

  • 尽可能缩短标题。
  • 使用具有清晰标题的小节来创建结构。
  • Provide succinct summaries.
  • Remove or layer introductory content.
  • 包括图表和数字。
  • 不要过度视觉设计。

准确,简洁的头衔

抵制编写华而不实的或炒作标题和链接的冲动。研究人员被吸引到了具有新的或矛盾的结果,以至于它们不熟悉,但如果实际发现没有备份标题的索赔,那么你将失去信誉。

科学家们想要事实,而不是松散的解释或推断。准确,具体描述了研究真的所说的内容。

If you adapt a scientific paper for online presentation, you’ll likely have to shorten the title. (Academic paper titles can be both wordy and overstated, as documented in the tumblr accountlolmythesis.。)

缩写标题可能很棘手,它可能觉得您可以过度简化复杂的内容。试着专注于主要外卖或在研究中将研究人员带到本页并适当地设定预期。特别是,在搜索引擎结果页面(SERP)上孤立时,确保标题在没有提供的支持上下文时读取的标题会有意义。

Sections with Subheadings Support Nonlinear Reading Patterns

研究人员读了甚至是复杂的学术材料(印刷品或网上)不完全和非线性- 至少最初。

域名专家举行首先扫描科学论文,获得内容的高级概述,并决定是否需要详细阅读。

(我们知道普通用户申请a类似的内容消费策略when they browse online. Nobody wants to waste time and energy reading something irrelevant to them — a basic tenet of信息觅食。)

“It’s really about energy. I like to spend as little as possible, especially when things are supplementary knowledge for me.” – Associate professor

参加我们研究的研究人员之一解释了他的扫描过程:

“科学家阅读文章的方式是他们阅读摘要,看看数字,阅manbetx官网手机登陆读结论和介绍,然后决定他们是否会读中间。几乎没有人通过阅读整篇文章来开始。[...]为什么我应该读到我对我不感兴趣的所有东西?“- 研究海洋学家

科学论文遵循非常具体的结构,每个部分都标有副标题。虽然确切的结构取决于研究领域,但大多数此类物品将有一种摘要和参考书目。manbetx官网手机登陆例如,心理学中的典型科学论文将包括:

  1. 抽象
  2. Introduction
  3. Methods
  4. 结果
  5. 讨论
  6. 结论
  7. Literature cited
OnlineLibrary.Wiley.com:这份科学论文在线发布了一些传统部分(摘要,介绍,结论)在右侧栏中的目录中列出。

明确标记的可预测的小节,如摘要和结论是有用的,因为他们允许研究人员从事有效的非线性读数。虽然当您在线呈现科学内容时,不一定需要遵循确切的小节结构,但请做在您的内容中使用副标题创造块and support扫描偏好

抽象s Are Just Fancy Summaries

In a traditional scientific paper, the abstract summarizes the main points of the content in a single paragraph. That usually involves covering the purpose of the study and how it was conducted, as well as major findings and brief interpretations.

与标题一起,摘要是研究人员科学论文中最重要的内容。它阐明了标题中解决的主题,这不能总是在几句单词中容纳内容的全部复杂性。摘要也是作者勾选读者的机会,说服他们的文章内容值得直线,详细阅读。

摘要是科学论文在线文章的摘要。manbetx官网手机登陆所有长型网页内容都可以从中受益页面顶部的简洁摘要。让您的读者快速轻松地概述主要主题,并帮助他们决定是否深入了解。

Article on sciencedaily.com
sciencedaily.com:这篇文章的标题(海洋酸化有助于一些壳体形成)有兴趣的研究员海洋人足以说服他从登陆页点击它。在文章页面上,他立即专注于摘要部分。“This is a summary, similar to an abstract […] OK, that’s definitely got me interested, it says, ‘This is a completely new insight.’” Scrolling down the page, he said, “This article, it’s not terribly long, I’d probably read this since they did a good job of summarizing it.”

在调整传统的科学论文或期刊文章时,您将能够使用本文的摘要作为摘要。但是,您可能需要编辑契约:摘要最多可达300字,但摘要应该只应该是1-3个句子。

Skip the Introduction

In the structure of a traditional scientific paper, the introduction typically uses a more narrative style than the other sections. An introduction’s purpose is to identify the topic, discuss the purpose of the research, and set up the context of the work. It usually includes an analysis of the current state of knowledge on the topic being researched.

参加我们研究的研究人员之一解释说,当她正在阅读对特定疾病的研究时,她经常跳过引言。

“我通常不会阅读整篇文章。我通常会读摘要,如果似乎我想进一步深入......我通常会跳过介绍,具体取决于它的内容。如果它只是谈论疾病是什么,目前的治疗,统计数据和所有这些,我会跳过它。我不需要那种信息。如果它比较某些治疗或预防方法或程序或任何程序,我可能会阅读并看看比较是什么,如果我不知道。“- 临床研究协调员

This researcher’s description of her information-seeking strategies again highlights the value of chunked content with clear subheadings that help users easily decide which pieces of content are relevant to them.

但是从这个例子中可以了解另一教训。引言倾向于提供更少的“肉类” - 较少的新贵信息。这就是研究人员才能在扫描抽象和其他部分后看看介绍的原因,如果他们选择阅读它。与其他网络用户一样,科学家只想在网上阅读时达到这一点。如果它没有提供有价值的信息,它们对蓬松内容不感兴趣。

Consider four strategies for helping your readers避免绒毛:

  • 完全削减了介绍性或背景内容。
  • Clearly label it with a descriptive subheading喜欢IntroductionorBackground,无趣的读者可以选择退出。
  • Use the inverted pyramid writing structure.将最重要的信息放在文章的顶部,然后在页面上进一步添加额外的详细信息。这种方法是有效的,因为它给了读者他们想要的前面。(如果我们要修改传统科学论文的结构以符合这种方法,我们最终可能会在参考文献列表旁边的介绍。)
  • 分层您的内容。链接到其他页面上的背景或介绍性信息,因此信息可用于需要它的人,但不会减少那些不需要它的人。

包括图表and Figures

General web users often struggle to understand any but the simplest charts. In contrast, researchers are not only comfortable with complex charts and graphs, but they prefer to see them. When researchers are scanning a piece of content to decide if they want to read closer, they often pay attention to figures.Presenting complicated information in a chart can help scientists understand the findings described in the article.

Unlike general web users, researchers can handle advanced data-visualization techniques, and can interpret things like correlations and error bars. Allow users to click on the charts and figures to see them full screen. Consider placing any large or unwieldy data tables on a separate page linked from the main text.

sciencedaily.com上的详细图表
一个环境科学家赞赏Sciencedaily.com上的这个图表:“这里很好的一件事是他们实际上有一个图表。你可以看到随着时间的推移发生了什么。他们有错误栏......如果他们只是有文字,那就对我很难。对我来说这是非常有趣的。然后点击图形吹了它![...]这是我喜欢查看信息的方式。“

有一个“科学”的外观

Take a look at a scientific paper. Most are very plain. Boring, even. Walls of text, little highlighting, Times New Roman, black text on white background.

你不需要像学术期刊一样风格风格 - 实际上,请不要那样做。

But be aware that, when determining if the content is meant for them or a general audience, experts look at the visual design of the sites they visit. If the visual design looks too polished or flashy, it might turn them off.

NOAA.GOV的抛光视觉设计
Noaa.gov的时尚视觉设计导致了一个环境科学家认为,这个网站是为公众而设计的,而不是研究人员:“这一点看了一下......一般的公共y。它有这个很好的大图片填充整个屏幕,我最近注意到了网站。它看起来很好,看起来很棒。但这告诉我有人让很多努力让它看起来很棒。“
Simple visual design of climate.gov
The unpolished visual design and data-rich figures on climate.gov resonated with researchers. The same scientist as the one mentioned above said, “These are the typical kind of things that people make when they’re trying to show data. […] I’m looking at the real thing. Not an artist’s conception of what the real thing is. This looks like it was made by a geeky scientist. With whatever tools he had available, and didn’t send it to the graphic arts department. It looks like real data, not massaged.”

结论

Overall, the structure and level of detail provided in traditional academic writing works well for researchers when presenting scientific content online. The wordiness and fluff, however, does not work well. When adapting scientific papers for online reading, keep your content organized, scannable, and succinct.