In general, the word ‘scenario’ refers to a sequence of actions or events. UX professionals use scenarios in a variety of situations, the two most notable ones being usability testing (任务场景) and ideation of new design ideas. In this article, we explore the latter UX use of scenarios.

用于构思的场景是关于某人使用您的产品或服务来完成特定任务的简短故事。它们为您的设计团队提供了有用的背景和共同点,因为它试图提出设计解决方案。

The Anatomy of a Scenario

场景通常是以一项任务为中心that is key to your product and includes 5 elements:

  1. an actor
  2. a motivator
  3. 意图或意图
  4. an action
  5. 决议

When writing a scenario,it’s best to use a specific persona as the actorcarrying out the scenario. Doing so provides additional context and insight about how that particular user segment might perform the task. For example, below is a possible scenario for a hotel booking website.

详细的黛比他要出差。She needs to book a hotel room that’s affordable and has good reviews. Debbie browses the site to find a hotel for her upcoming trip. She looks closely at the various hotels to find one that meets her needs. She considers price and user ratings heavily as she shops. Debbie selects a hotel and books a room.

演员

详细的黛比

激励因素

他要出差。

Intention

She needs to book a hotel room that’s affordable and has good reviews.

Action

Debbie browses the site to find a hotel for her upcoming trip. She looks closely at the various hotels to find one that meets her needs.

Resolution

Debbie selects a hotel and books a room.

Getting the Right Level of Granularity

场景是设计的一种构思工具。就像storytelling,他们提供了一个潜在的抽象概念(the main task), making it easier to empathize with users and provide insightful solutions. Because in essence, they are short narratives, they are more memorable than just a user task and a set of requirements. But there is a danger to taking the scenario too far and adding in too many details: it can lead to solutions that are too tailored to the scenario while ignoring the range of possible real-life situations.

Here are some guidelines to ensure the right level of granularity and detail:

  1. 保持场景高层次,避免设计细节.Scenarios should inspire design ideas. Avoid injecting solutions too early, since these could inhibit or bias ideation. For example, avoid specifics like the following:

DON’T:Debbie goes to theBook a Hoteltab and uses the search bar to look for a hotel. She uses the left-side filter menu to filter the results. She considers price and user ratings heavily as she shops and adds those she likes best to herFavoriteslist. She revisits herFavorites在她的用户配置文件中列出。

  1. 只包括对角色的需求和优先级的一些一般性引用.It’s okay to include a few high-priority, general user needs in the scenario, to ensure that they are taken into account during ideation. Our scenario, mentions Debbie’s interest in affordability, reviews, price, and ratings. However, be careful to avoid too many specifics and superfluous details. Doing so can make design ideation too specific in these early stages. Focus on the most important factors that would impact the user’s actions instead of creating a laundry list of every potential detail the persona might consider. The following example is too specific:

DON’T:详细的黛比is going on a business trip to Honolulu Hawaii, and she is traveling with her small dog, Penny. She needs to book a hotel room that’s affordable, has good reviews, and a minibar. It must also be on the 2nd floor near the elevator. Debbie browses the site to find a hotel. She looks closely at the various hotels to find one that meets her needs, spending 45 minutes looking at hotel photos trying to determine if the bed will be comfortable and if there is enough closet room for her clothes. As she shops, she considers price, user ratings, WIFI speed, and the availability of snacks provided free upon her arrival. Debbie selects a hotel and books a room using her American Express card. She hopes that taxi cabs are easy to reserve because she will have an early morning departure flight.

While the specificity of such a scenario may work if presented to a participant as a task in a usability test (though much too long), it will dampen ideation and will force the team to generate solutions matching all the details of the scenario instead of creating a general solution that will work in a variety of circumstances.

如何使用场景进行构思

场景映射is a group exercise that helps your design team think about how your persona segments might approach an activity using your product or service and ideate around the type of experience you want to provide for them, producing candidate solutions for the future design. Scenario maps are related to the reality and design maps discussed by Tamara Adlin and John Pruit in their book on personas.

This activity should be done fairly early in a project to explore ideas that will influence user flows, features, and UI design.

场景映射研讨会

围绕设计解决方案促进构思的研讨会称为scenario-mapping workshop.It involves the following components:

  • 参与者:来自您的产品团队或利益相关者团队的4-6名不同角色的人员,以代表不同的观点
  • 主持人:明确的车间负责人,指导参与者完成活动和讨论
  • 方案: 1–2 scenarios for key tasks for your top 1–2 highest priority personas
  • 用品:An open whiteboard or wall space, 3–4 colors of sticky notes, and writing utensils

在研讨会期间

  1. Set up the scenario.To begin, break your written scenario down into pieces. Write the persona, motivator, and intent at the top, to serve as guiding context. Then break the rest of the scenario down into smaller parts across 4-6 sticky notes placing them horizontally across the wall.
Scenario map setup. Sticky notes across the wall
The scenario is broken down into sections, allowing for ideation on each section individually.
  1. Designate categories for ideation.Assign a different color of sticky note for 3 different ideation categories and provide each participant with a small stack of each color. Here are the ideation categories:
    1. 设计思路.For example, it might be helpful to let Debbie filter the reviews based on common keywords.
    2. 问题that arise at this step that you’ll want to resolve. For example, you might wonder if the hotel metadata taxonomy can support filtering by price and user-rating.
    3. 评论或考虑这可能是相关的。例如,数据库中可能有关于每个酒店可用便利设施的可变信息。参与者可能希望提出这个问题,并在地图上捕捉它,以确保考虑到相关的数据结构,以及这些结构如何影响解决方案。
3 different colors or types of sticky notes
Defined ideation categories are assigned a color.
  1. Active Ideation. 接下来,总共花10-15分钟进行积极的思考。在此期间,鼓励所有参与者根据墙上张贴的场景的每个部分,集思广益地讨论相关的设计思想、问题或评论和考虑。指导参与者在走的时候把笔记放在相关部分下面的墙上。
参与者将他们的想法放在他们所应用场景的步骤下
Participants begin placing sticky notes under the scenario step that inspired them.

由the end of the time, you will see the wall filled up with ideas for discussion. Following ideation, take detailed photos to capture the state of the map before moving on and making changes.

带有胶粘物的完成场景图的图像
场景图如下所示。在地图旁边的墙上贴上这个人物角色很有用,可以提醒所有参与者你对这个客户群的了解。
  1. 讨论和汇报。在构思之后,主持人引导讨论,回顾小组提出的想法。讨论时间旨在帮助所有参与者看到想法的广度,并快速决定哪些想法需要进一步探讨或不进一步探讨。在讨论过程中,协导员将仔细阅读每个便笺,确认并将其开放给小组讨论。务必提前告诉与会者,这些讨论的目的是要迅速。如果讨论无法在一两分钟内结束,请在停车场区域张贴粘性标签。小组还可以选择完全从董事会上删除一些笔记——例如,如果这些笔记被认为无法执行,或者其中包括在会议期间回答的问题。

在这段时间内,小组还可以进一步组织粘滞物,将其分为子主题。

scenario map with ideas clustered into categoires
最后的地图应该有围绕主题或讨论中所做决定的分组和组织的笔记。
  1. 捕获和关闭. 再拍一组详细的照片,捕捉地图的最终状态。主持人还应向小组汇报下一步的工作。如果一个小组成员自愿将最终地图的状态数字化为一种更易使用的格式(如电子表格),并与小组成员分享,这也可能会有所帮助。

如果在研讨会中探讨了多个场景或角色,那么该过程将重复。

Converging Toward a Single Solutions

Any given scenario-mapping workshop should focus on 2–4 scenarios for timing purposes, as workshops that are too long can become exhausting and less effective near the end. However, the final design will have to accommodate a broad solution: a range of personas, performing a range of tasks under a variety of conditions and contexts. This means that your design team will have to determine which personas and tasks to include in scenario-mapping workshops. It’s possible you will hold multiple scenario-mapping workshops to cover the range of scenarios you deem most important.

因为我们通常为不止一个角色或客户细分进行设计,所以为不同的角色映射相同的场景是一个非常有效的练习,因为它们处理相同任务的方式可能非常不同。这样做可以让您了解与任务相关的用户的不同需求,并使设计师能够有效地提出一个能够满足多个用户需求的单一解决方案。

Following scenario-mapping workshops, designers should look across the variety of persona solutions that were brainstormed for a single task. They should seek commonalities and merge disparate ideas to converge on a single design solution that can support all personas and contexts.

您可能没有时间或资源为每个角色-任务组合进行场景映射,但这并不意味着您应该忽略那些低优先级场景。您应该根据这些用户及其需求评估您的设计解决方案,根据需要进行调整和迭代,以确保解决方案尽可能为所有用户提供服务。

Conclusion

场景映射是一个有用的构思工具,可以为团队的设计活动(如创建用户流和线框)做好准备。将对项目有多个观点的参与者带到场景映射研讨会中,可以在探索设计解决方案之前公开所有考虑事项,以便进行预先讨论和协调。围绕以角色为中心的场景进行构思可以确保用户数据是构思的核心,并导致以用户为中心的解决方案。

Reference

John Pruitt, Tamara Adlin. 2006. The Persona Lifecycle: Keeping People in Mind Throughout Product Design. Morgan Kaufmann.