As UX practitioners, we are often caught in a balancing act: usability improvements, tasks to be done, design ideas, personas, resources — the list goes on. The reality is that not everything can be done at once. Making an informed decision on what to prioritize can be daunting.

A prioritization matrix serves to identify the most important problems. This structured, objective approach helps achieve collaborative consensus while satisfying the varied needs of the user and business.

定义:优先级矩阵是2D-Visual,其显示了基于两个加权标准的一组项的相对重要性。

基本优先级矩阵
优先级矩阵,指示用户的价值和组织的努力。

术语“优先级矩阵”用于设计思维社区,以指各种优先级化技术和表示,即技术上,并不符合数学意义上的矩阵。为了一致性,我们使用相同的术语,但有时我们的“矩阵”将被更准确地描述为“图表”。虽然每个可能略有不同的表现,但所有表格都有助于团队可视化和传达优先事项。

历史

Prioritization charts have been used for decades in many different fields, in many different ways. Many time-management matrices are based on the艾森霍尔方法从赋予Dwight D.艾森豪威尔的报价源于德怀特D.艾森豪威尔:“我有两种问题,紧急和重要。紧急是不重要的,重要的是永不迫切的。”通过这种方法,活动分配给四个象限之一:重要/紧急,重要/不紧急,不重要/紧急,不重要/不紧急。

在科学和数学中使用的另一个流行工具是一个决策矩阵that allows numerous options to be systematically ranked according to some criteria. In UX, we can use类似的方法to collaboratively weigh options and make informed decisions that balance our time and resources with the needs of the user.

创建基本优先级矩阵

1.建立您将使用的项目,标准和规模

创建优先级图表有三个初始步骤。首先,建立您优先考虑的项目并将其写在各个粘滞便笺上。这些可以是:

接下来,您将定义根据您执行优先级的条件。为了优先考虑不同的想法,标准可能会对用户或可行性的影响。为了优先考虑角色,它们可能是用户群和ROI的百分比。无论您确定哪些项目,应始终源于项目和业务需求的总体目标。

有一次项目和标准,开发规模。例如,比例可以像高或低(如果您的标准是可行性的影响),例如对用户的影响)。或者,它可以由实际数字制成(如果您正在绘制用户的百分比,则比例可以为0到100)。

2. Individually vote based on expertise

将不同的彩色点分散给每个团队成员。一般的经验法则是每人的投票数量是优先事项的一半。虽然每个团队成员获得相同数量的投票,但它们只能根据其专业领域的域名的标准投票。为不同的专业领域使用不​​同的颜色。例如,在矩阵绘图可行性与对用户的影响方面,开发人员可能具有绿色点和等级可行性,而设计者可能具有代表对用户的影响的橙色点。

Team members then silently vote on items. Members are allowed to place multiple votes on one item. These votes should be educated opinions, so time to research or investigate prior to voting may be needed.

与团队成员投票的优先级矩阵内容
由团队成员进行相应投票的项目

Note that many prioritization techniques do not include this step. However, in UX, where crossdisciplinary consensus is integral to the success of a project, we recommend you begin by voting. This step will not only speed up the process and provide structure for plotting, but it will also prevent the loudest person in the room from dominating the outcome of the exercise.

3.绘制图表并使用投票作为放置物品的基础

使用团队的投票作为指导,协同将每个项目放在图表上。这一步应该几乎没有讨论。目标只是基于在现有步骤中放置的投票来将物品放到图中。

放置投票后的示例优先级矩阵
An example matrix after items have been placed based on votes

4.讨论和谈判安置

一旦放在图表上,就是时候讨论结果并比较物品下降的地方了。要询问团队的一些问题可能包括:

  • 收到平等选票的物品是否真的平等?想法是一个同样可行的想法b,即使他们收到相同数量的投票?为什么或者为什么不?
  • 我们是否同意最终在尺度末端的物品?
  • 为什么某些物品没有选票?是我们没有足够的投票,或者他们是否真正提供了基于我们的标准的价值?

在整个讨论中,团队应该随意进行协作移动物品。最后,应达成一致所有项目的最终安置。

5.年代hare out and drive action

绘制和讨论后,应记录地图并与利益相关者共享。锻炼应导致明确的行动计划和时间表。

适应您的需求

这项技术的最强大特征之一是根据您的团队的需求和目标的适应性。

增加标准的数量。

One can use an arbitrary number of criteria, though visualization becomes difficult with 3 criteria and extremely hard with 4 or more. Thus, if possible, we like to stick to 2 criteria.

If more criteria are truly important, split them into pairs, as shown below, then compare the two charts. (If there’s only a single criterion, you don’t need any decision tools: just pick the option with the highest score.)

创建多个曲线以跨标准进行比较。

When there are more than two criteria that influence decision making, you can plot items across multiple graphs. Doing so allows the team to access multiple variables that may be important to users or to the business. For example, an idea may rank high in impact on the user and feasibility, but have very little effect on ROI.

当setting up multiple matrices, always place the best outcome on the far right or top left of your axis. This allows you to easily compare several matrices and identify the best items as those that consistently fall in the top right of your matrix.

Two comparable prioritization matrix
两个可比较的矩阵有助于可视化满足多个业务需求的项目(换句话说,这在“是”象限中一致地均落在“是”中)。

Incorporate a more rigorous scale.

The above examples employ a simple, binary scale; however, you can use continuous scales when appropriate. For example, rather than just using a high–low scale for feasibility, you could use the estimated time for implementing a feature (e.g., 1 year vs. 2 weeks). Resources could be ranked according to a quarterly budget: $50,000 vs. $1,000.

如果优先级的结果具有显着的影响,则将额外的严格构建到过程中。例如,让团队成员对他们的投票点进行排名(例如,通过写入1,2和3到3个点)。在拨打选票时,团队成员必须确定每个投票的重量,而不是简单的前三名。因此,结果不仅仅是哪些物品得到了最多的投票,而是哪些物品最顶级(1秒)票等。

物品可能会获得排名投票,这反映了每个选民的重要性。排名投票用于确定放置到矩阵上。

Vote in private.

The process can also be adapted to meet the needs of your team. If your team’s culture is prone to group think or the HIPPO effect (highest paid person's opinion), then vote in private or digitally, rather than openly, to make the process truly democratic and prevent bias.

将它应用于生命。

优先级图表也有助于外面的工作。如果您正在考虑新的工作机会,请尝试对对您最重要的事情进行策划机会:支付,旅行,增长或指导。如果你正在考虑一下大旅行,也许你绘制了你的价值:天气,文化,价格,食物或景点。除了更好的个人决策外,额外的做法还可以帮助您工作。

好处

There are benefits from both the process of creating a prioritization chart and the tangible artifact itself:

  • 促进重要的讨论

创建优先级矩阵的过程汇集了一个协作组,以利用其专业知识来做出明智的决定。无论结果如何,练习促进生产性,结构化的谈话:手中的选择权衡对业务重要的标准。

  • 创建共享心理模型

虽然该过程是优先级练习的主要目的,但它出来的伪像同样有益。该图表代表了协作排名的共享视觉表现,并表示民主过程,而不是任何一个人的意见。它是一个有价值的有形工件,文件记录了团队历史和过程。任何人都可以瞥一眼墙壁,了解团队共同同意的是什么。

  • Provides structure and removes emotion

优先级曲线是评估选项的快速简便,但又一致的方法。他们允许团队始终如一地做出明智的决策,而不管房间里的情绪或偏见。

Conclusion

Everyday decisions affect the outcome of our work. As UX practitioners, it is our job to understand the opportunities at hand and pursue those that maximize business and user benefits. We cannot risk that these decisions be arbitrary or made in a silo.

优先顺序图表为我们提供了一种简单的方法来评估和分析对用户和业务最有影响的影响,以协同纪律的方式。

在我们的全天课程中学习和创建优先级矩阵生成与设计思维的大想法

References

棕色,蒂姆。2009.通过设计进行更改。哈珀柯林斯。

Gray, D., Brown, S. & Macanufo, J. 2010. Gamestorming – A playbook for innovators, rulebreakers and changemakers. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media, Inc. http://gamestorming.com/impact-effort-matrix-2/

IBM企业设计思维工具包。优先级网格。https://www.ibm.com/design/thinking/page/toolkit/activity/priorization.