简单语言的神话

我听到简单语言的常见误导异议是它造成损坏内容,从而侮辱智能读者。在为熟练专业人士和学者编写的作者中,这笔投诉往往是最响亮的。

Some writers use an academic tone out of habit or try to impress readers with complex sentences and showy vocabulary. The misconceived notion that long sentences and big words make you sound smarter (or more professional) results in great sacrifices toreadabilityand可信度

All writers, including producers of technical and academic content, owe it to readers to communicate information simply, and clearly. Remember that the primary goal of communication is to convey information. Here are some advantages of clear, straightforward writing:

  • 它简洁有效地传达了信息,以便读者快速了解消息,而无需破译复杂的句子或模糊的行话。
  • It benefits everybody, from expert readers to international users and people who use English as a second language (ESL). If your content is meant to appeal to an international audience, plain language is even more crucial.
  • It is易于搜索and will often gain you a betterSEO排行。您在副本中使用的单词应反映人们在搜索引擎中输入的单词。
  • 读者欢迎来临;事实上,研究表明它使作家看起来更聪明。(如果人们了解更多你所说的话,他们可能会觉得你有意义。)

Good communication has strong business value. Organizations with clear writing styles are perceived to possess greater transparency and credibility than companies that don’t. Plain language removes barriers between you and your readers. It sets your organization apart from the competition, resulting in increased换算and忠诚

忘记技术写作的惯例。推开传统写入的报告和文章。manbetx官网手机登陆他们往往是冗长的,难以理解。如果你想清楚,你会清楚地表达自己。您的受众希望易于阅读的内容,允许他们有效地获取消息的主旨。没有人抱怨说文字太容易理解。

普通语言比亲自在线更重要。在线副本不会良好地传达拐点,fast-moving Web users如果它们没有简洁地传达并格式化,将会错过关键消息支持扫描

甚至专家甚至更喜欢简单的语言

In our recent使用域专家的可用性研究在科学,技术和医疗领域,我们发现甚至highly educated online readers crave succinct information that is easy to scan,就像其他人一样。以下是他们对在线内容的反应的一些例子:

PCMAGS.com:IT经理表示赞赏本发明的产品综述:“这篇[顶部区域]很短,易于摘要。它给出了审查的非常清晰的画面......没有阅读评论。它给你了信息,相关信息,无论您花费多少时间。我可以花十秒钟,获取信息。“
IMB.com: The same IT manager didn’t like an article on IBM.com because it used branded terms he didn’t understand, likemessagesight:“这可能不是一个页面,我介绍更多。它有很多术语和技术术语我不知道。”
Grants.NIH.gov: A college professor looking for grants became frustrated with convoluted content: “It’s generally dense. Most academic stuff is. This is crazy dense. It’s too much. I’d rather have less. All this is so complicated. All of this government funding stuff…What is a SF424? Why can't we call that something simpler? This is way too complicated… I personally prefer it be to be nice and conversational."
GAO.gov: An information-systems officer balked at this page for having illegible text that lacked formatting: "I can tell you I hate the way this is laid out. Small text, no headings."
一位护士从业者在护理中,这两种版本的阿片类药物的文章(左)包含了大词和更长的句子,而修订后(右)是用休闲语言编写的,并更好地格式化。她更喜欢修订版的版本进行简洁和易于扫描:“这一个[修订]更好。我喜欢较大的标题。这更加简洁。没有像你正在寻找的那样速度飙升这么多的绒毛......你可以更快地扣篮。我从医疗事情上整天喂养,我仔细阅读了他们,看看是否有趣的东西我......[阅读修订版]对我来说更容易......因为我[可以]快速看到问题是什么。头条新闻很好,子弹很好。这是医疗饲料的更好格式。“


Tips for Writing in Plain Language

以下技术可以改善在线写作和沟通:

1. Know your audience.

A fundamental practice of good writing is to identify your target audience before you write. The more you know about your users, the better you can craft your writing to match their needs and expectations. Consider your audience’s reading level, the concepts and vocabulary with which it is familiar, and the questions it wants answered. Then write for that audience.

Writing for a specialized audience is different than writing for the general public. Within different groups of readers, a spectrum of knowledge exists, depending on one’s specialty and role. Even people who work in the same industry don’t share the same vocabulary level. For example, a scientist with 10 years of experience will have a deeper understanding of scientific jargon than a graduate student.

Furthermore, medical jargon commonly shared by colleagues in one country might not be understood by experts in another country. Students and internal users might need specialized terms defined, but doing so risks alienating experts who might mistakenly think the information is for lay people.

不同的用户需要不同的写作策略。如果您的消息必须达到多个受众,则优先考虑它们是很重要的。避免写作大家When you write for everyone, you write for no one.您越具体地识别您的观众和您的作品的目标,您的写作就越令人专注和吸引力。

您的观众应塑造您写的是什么以及您如何写作。例如,概述和背景散文可能是公众所必需的,但专家普遍陈述妨碍了事实。

2.选择您的受众熟悉的文字。

使用您的观众简单和熟悉的单词而不是混淆读者的幻想或复杂的单词。

In general, when you have two competing terms that have similar meaning,选择对您的受众最熟悉的术语— the word more likely to be used by them. Not only is there a higher chance that users will know these words, but they will comprehend them faster than other less frequently used words. (The more familiar a word, the higher its在内存中激活,并且内存检索时间越短。)

删除俚语,习语和品牌条款。俚语和习语在年龄和地理上具有不同程度的熟悉程度。您的组织发明的品牌条款是指进程或产品需要很长时间才能进入公共词汇,并应通过明确条款更换(或至少陪同)。

不仅是复杂的语言很难理解,但它也借给了一个自命不凡的复印,痛苦tone of voice, that can sound patronizing and can alienate your audience.

If you must use technical terms that your target readers may not know, explain them first. What is considered simple and familiar varies, depending on your audience. For example, for general audiences, the wordcut常见。但对于外科医生来说,这个词切口可能就像熟悉一样,同时具有更高的精度。

We usually warn against using jargon, as it’s often meaningless and sounds pretentious. Jargon is helpful, however, when it communicates a concept clearly understood by specialized user groups. When专家组分享一个常见的词汇,技术术语可以作为通信的快捷方式。例如,对于医生来说,“心室性心动过速”比“快速心律节奏从心脏的不正确的心脏节奏开始,更加精确,并且从心脏的底部腔室开始”。

但是,在使用技术术语之前,请确保您的观众真正了解其含义。我们目睹了许多陌生的行话所困扰的专业人士。

在为专家写作时,请注意当您需要解释概念或术语时。如果您中断文章来解释专家普遍已知的概念,则风险疏远它们。最好将每篇文章的焦点保持在目标受众,然后在不同的内容层中为辅助观众提供补充细节或解释(例如,通过超链接)。

3.使用短句和段落。

是简洁的。基本的写作原则是良好的句子有很少的话。如果您可以以更少的单词传达相同的想法,请执行此操作。省略了不必要的语言,这对消息增加了很少的价值 - 即使您为高等教育的受众写作。专业人士很忙,并将了解简洁的内容,使他们能够在处理信息上花费认知资源,而不是在解析句子上。

作为一项经验法则,对于Web的目标是使用少于50%的单词,您可以在印刷出版物中使用。漫无主义的句子,通常在学术论文中发现,往往具有过多的逗号,分号和条款。当读者试图通过长期句子跋涉时,他们会陷入条款之间,令人沮丧。

消除以下类型的单词或短语:

  • Redundancies (e.g., “therapeutic treatment”)
  • Idioms (e.g., “ground-breaking”)
  • 无意义的修饰符(例如,“在此时刻”)
  • Meaningless generalities (e.g., “today’s world is full of challenges”)

Distilling copy to the essential points requires cognitive effort and attention to detail. Write and rewrite drafts until you’ve removed unnecessary words. Sentences should be no more than 15–20 words. Communicate one idea per paragraph.有只有1-2句话的段落很好只要他们明确解释段落的想法。

4.瞄准10-12th等级阅读水平。

We usually recommend writing at the 6–8th一般受众的等级阅读水平。(请注意,阅读水平对应于人们的阅读成果,而不是他们的实际等级,年龄或智力。)

但是,在写专家和学者时,在10-12写作thgrade reading level is appropriate. Highly educated professionals can handle higher reading levels. Text beyond the 12th等级阅读水平需要太多的心理努力,即使是受过高等教育的人。(为了比较,这篇文章是10th等级阅读水平。We target UX professionals on this website and we hope that you find this text easy to read. But many members of the broad consumer audience may find it difficult.)

如果你还没有这样做,养成了测量的习惯readability你的副本。您可以使用Microsoft Word的内置语法检查器等计算机工具来执行此操作。如果您的写作级别过高,请缩短您的句子,段落和单词。

5. Follow web-formatting rules for readability.

Well-formatted content helps people of all reading levels, including highly educated professionals. In fact, content that’s written for professionals needs to be even more readable because of the intricate nature of the information they consume.

Well-established web formatting techniques attract attention to the most important elements of your text and significantly improve its readability. They help people scan pages quickly and access areas relevant to them. The most common and effective web-formatting conventions are:

You can significantly improve your copy by写作支持扫描。避免将内容呈现为巨大的文本墙壁。

结论

平实的语言是必要的,可以有一个大payoff for both consumers and organizations. Being direct and plainspoken is not talking down. It is clear communication. Follow established web-writing guidelines to maximize readability.

参考
Oppenheimer,D. M.(2006)。无论如何使用博学紫红素的后果:不必要使用长词的问题。应用认知心理学, 20, 139 –156. doi:10.1002/acp.1178