The field of user experience centers on the idea that we must design products around people, rather than teaching people how to use products: user-centered design (UCD), not technology-centered design. In order to do so, we must understand people—their behaviors, attitudes, needs, and goals. Whether the final product is a website, software application, mobile app, or interactive kiosk, a user-centered design can only be achieved if we know who is going to use it and if that knowledge informs our design. An entire arsenal of用户研究方法can be employed to achieve a user-centered design. Personas are yet another tool that can be used to encourage decisions based on a real person’s needs, and not on those of a generic and undefined “user.”

人物的定义

角色是一个人fictional, yet realistic, description of a typical or target user产品。角色是原型而不是实际的生活人类,但是应该描述角色,就像他们是真实的人一样。

描述应该是全面的,包括details about the persona’s needs, concerns, and goals, as well as background information such as age, gender, behaviors, and occupation. This focus on a singular individual—or a small set of individuals, if using multiple personas—fosters empathy for the specific users we are designing for, and helps us break away from the attempt to design for everyone. A persona doesn’t need to document every aspect of the imaginary individual’s life, but rather should focus on those characteristics that impact what is being designed. It is likely that a business will have several personas to cover the various aspects of their organization, with one or two of them identified as the main targets for each product or service, feature set, or content area of a website.

个人work because designers and developers have the same tendency as all other people to be captivated more by concrete instances than by abstractions and generalizations. We need all product-team members to empathize with users and be willing to go the extra step to develop something that will work for the actual users. But if users are described in statistical terms and as broad profiles, that information will simply not lodge itself as deeply in team members’ brains as a distinct persona will.

示例persona.
角色的例子,有针对性地帮助设计关于and职业生涯公司网站的内容。

个人Are Not User Groups

Defining user groups or market segments is not the same as creating personas. When discussing broad categories of users, ranges must be used in order to summarize attributes of the entire group. These statistics are too impersonal, and are difficult to keep in mind when designing. In contrast, a persona is a singular user derived from these data ranges to突出小组的具体细节和重要特征。因此,它产生了一种更加消化和难忘的叙述,这反过来又增加了在整个设计阶段和超越过程中继续使用的可能性。

何时创建人物

“As early as possible” is the best guideline for when to create personas. Of course,personas must be based on user research为了完全准确,代表产品的实际用户。角色是制作的人,但他们应该根据真实人的信息组成。(想象中的朋友的角色,你在现实世界中没有任何基础梦想的人可能会描述你的用户希望to get but will not reflect the way people actually are. Design for somebody who doesn’t exist and you’ll have no customers.)

理想情况下,在实际设计过程开始之前,人员创建过程应该是产品或功能的研究阶段的一部分。实地研究那surveys, longitudinal studies,采访, 和别的用户研究方法should be conducted first to define characteristics of typical users. (Keep in mind that any自我报告的数据,例如由此产生的专门小组和调查,可能会误导,应该通过其他方法验证。)一旦完成了用户研究,就可以从该数据中派生角色和方案。

创建人物的指导方针

角色创作是最好的作为团队,不是因为它很难,但因为它将更多地支持能够为流程做出贡献的团队成员使用的角色。使用Personas作为设计工具的主要论点之一是它们并不逼真。通过在流程中包括团队成员并将其暴露于来自用户研究的原始数据,很明显,每个虚构用户的特征和行为基于从真实用户累积的实际聚合数据。

要启动角色创建过程,请从识别用户 - 研究活动中观察到的用户的特征开始。将这些属性组分组到群集中开始形成清晰的字符。如果几个似乎太相似,请将它们合并或消除对业务不太重要的任何群体。曾经突出的角色出现,添加细节以使角色更加现实,可信,令人难忘。

常见的信息包括:

  • 名称,年龄,性别和照片
  • 标签线描述他们在“现实生活”中所做的事;避免太诙谐,这样做可能会弄得太有趣而不是一个有用的工具
  • 您的产品或服务领域的体验水平
  • Context for how they would interact with your product: Through choice or required by their job? How often would they use it? Do they typically use a desktop computer to access it, or their phone or other device?
  • 目标和担忧他们执行相关任务:速度,准确性,彻底性或任何其他可能因素在其使用中的需求
  • 引用总结了角色的态度

Your goal should be to create a believable and alive character.避免添加无关的无关细节,这些细节没有对设计的任何影响。虽然名称和照片可能看起来无关紧要,但它们的功能是为了帮助令人难忘,这是一个角色的#1工作:确保所有团队成员都记得他们正在构建产品的用户。另一方面,很多不必要的细节可以压倒相关的细节,让他们更难记住。

因此,每条信息都应包括包括:如果不会影响最终的设计或帮助任何决定更容易,省略它。例如,在设计内联网时,识别人物最受欢迎的品种葡萄酒可能在设计内部网时可能没有帮助,但在为侍酒师和严肃的葡萄酒爱好者设计论坛或市场时可能非常有用。诸如被定向细节的行为质量可能意味着在确信购买之前,个人需要看到产品的特定数据点或方面,而重估速度可能表明需要有效和精简的设计。

角色设计设计

The main benefit of using personas is that they create a common, more precise vocabulary for describing a certain type of user and thus focus design efforts on a common goal. In meetings, the persona’s nameacts as shorthand for the full set of attributes, desires, and behaviors在制定设计决策时需要考虑。如果你试图引用“用户”想要什么,你会议中的每个人都会解释那些用户是谁,他们的需求不同。此外,这个“用户”定义将基于每个人的方式转移mental modelof what is being discussed. Framing a statement around a specific persona breaks the listeners out of self-referential thinking and removes the speaker’s reliance on opinions, shifting the discussion away from personal judgments toward that particular persona’s needs. Once the team can easily picture the same set of users, it can create better designs for them.

在制定设计策略决策时,最有利于人员的这些功能应告知该特征来实施和优先级。通常,一个或两个角色应该被识别为产品的主要目标,或者在更大产品中设置的功能。避免浪费时间设计和构建对目标角色无用的外来特征。这种实践只关注特定的用户甚至两个用户 - 帮助设计人员避免创建一个接口,处理每个边缘案例可想而出的。你无法设计一些东西!但是,可以设计一种令人愉快且可用于定义的一组目标用户的体验。

Ongoing Benefits of Personas

战略和设计决策是Personas的主要用途,但是有几种其他方式可以使用过去初始设计阶段。事实上,即使在设计阶段的开始未在设计阶段创建角色,它仍然值得为这些活动创建它们。

When working with an outside agency or consultants, clearly defined personas provide an easy way to describe the target audience of a product or service: just list the personas’ top attributes, or hand over the full documents for the agency to reference. Once a design is created, personas can be used as a guide for expert reviews. For each top task or area of a website or application, consider how each persona would deal with the process to determine potential issues within an interface.

Recruiting participants for usability studies也可以让角色更容易。将人员视为前瞻性新兵的模板;跨越几个角色或角色不同特征的常见特征可能是有用的筛选标准,其中一些如果不是所有的学习参与者。

If the website or application is already live and running, personas can be used for分割分析数据评估真实用户的行为和使用。这些细分在削减一次削减纯粹的数据量时不仅有用,而且他们还支持持续的验证和改进个人作为生活文件,而不是珍贵的东西。

有关在项目生命周期内创建和使用PersonAs的更多信息,请考虑我们的全日制培训课程personas:将用户数据转化为用户居中的设计解决方案