个人used in UX work are a quick, empathy-inducing shorthand for our users’背景motivations需要那andapproaches to using our products。They are meant to help us focus on what matters most to our users and put ourselves in their shoes when making design decisions. Because of this, they must always be rooted in a定性的了解用户并反映what and whythat drives them. They should not be based on (often dubious) correlations between different demographic or analytics variables.

角色并不打算成为一个详尽的,科学entific taxonomy of every possible user type, neatly categorized according to a multitude of psychographic, demographic, and behavioral variables — making design decisions while keeping in mind tens or hundreds of persona types would quickly become unwieldy. The whole point of personas is that they arememorableactionable那anddistinct from one another- 他们在那里总结了我们不同的受众段的主要需求,以便我们可以轻松回忆并同情它们。

There are 3 different ways that teams can create personas, depending on the research data in which they are rooted:

  1. Proto personas那meant to quickly align the team’s existingassumptions关于他们的用户是谁,但不是基于(新)的研究
  2. 定性的人格那based on small-sample qualitative research, such as interviews, usability tests, orfield studies
  3. 统计人物那where initial qualitative research informs a survey instrument that is used to gather a large sample size, and the personas emerge from statistical analysis

所有三个都有不同的利弊,适用于不同的情况。

Proto Personas: Meant for Quick Alignment

Proto personas are a lightweight form of ad-hoc personas created with没有新的研究。他们目录于该团队的现有知识(或最佳猜测)是他们的用户是谁以及他们想要的。Proto Personas如果您的团队有任何情况,则可以基于现有的用户数据,但在许多情况下,完全基于团队对用户是谁的假设以及他们所需要的假设。

Proto Personas如何制作

Typically, proto personas are created in a workshop that involves your team and key stakeholders or clients. The workshop usually takes 2–4 hours; each participant creates 2–5 proto personas of their own (using a simple template) and then shares them with the group. The group then discusses all the personas and combines, remixes, and edits various attributes into a final set of 3–6 proto personas.

垂悬在墙壁上的手拉的原始人物,包含简短的传记素描,目标,痛点和解决方案
Proto personas created in a workshop environment: Each participant creates 2–5 of these simple sketches, and the whole team discusses, remixes, and combines these into a few final proto personas.

Pros of Proto Personas

Since proto personas don’t require a research project, they are well suited to teams that are working in aLean UXframework or have lowUX成熟and would otherwise not use personas at all. The other major value of proto personas is that they make your team’simplicitassumptions about your usersexplicit。通常,每个团队成员对典型用户有不同的假设,并且缺乏对齐意味着每个人代表不同的预期受众做出决定。这些混乱的假设通常在团队的焦点上削减,因此目录假设提供至少一些共享方向,即使结果不准确地捕获真实的用户。如果团队认为他们是假设的假设,ProLo Personas也可以是未来研究的门户验证通过研究(或经过修改,一旦不正确的假设带来光线)。

ProLo Personas的缺点

显然,由于ProPO Personas不是由研究驱动的,它们通常是您用户的不准确表示,并且可以成为团队不正确的假设的回声室。而且,如果团队发现这些角色中的价值很小那they can lead to a negativehalo effecttowards personas in general and towards other UX collaborative activities.

定性的人格:最适合大多数球队

对于大多数团队来说,创造角色的最佳方法是通过运行固体探索性定性研究(例如interviewing users) with a small-to-medium sample size, and then segmenting users based on shared attitudes, goals, pain points, and expectations.

How Qualitative Personas Are Made

Start by interviewing 5–30 users (as a rolling sample of 5 users per group, until you uncover only a few new insights with each new interview). These interviews can be either fully separate sessions or tagged onto a usability test or field study. The research will uncover the main things that your users care about: their pain points, their expectations for the features and behavior of your product, the words they use for describing the tasks done with your product, how they approach key workflows, and what they’re trying to achieve. Take your transcripts and categorize the data into major themes (known as编码the data).

The analysis portion then involves looking for patterns: you are looking for interviewees that had major overlap with other interviewees inof these key themes (but not necessarily all of them). Rather than simply looking for a perfect match between individuals you interviewed, look for broad patterns. It’s worth explaining to a colleague what the connection is as you do this work. For example, you might notice (for an ecommerce site) that multiple interviewees described inspecting many product pages before making a decision and that most of those same interviewees also said they used the shopping cart as a holding area for comparing candidate products. While those interviewees might have had many differences in how they answered other questions (such as using different devices, what they were shopping for, what their budget was, and so on), their similarities might be more important to your team than their differences, and so you might create a persona that focuses on their similarities (e.g.,Researchershoppers).

定性分析过程是细致的细节和详细,并且完全如何超出本文的范围。我们在我们的过程中涵盖了这个过程Personas研讨会

品质人物

当考虑到所涉及的努力相对于他们的价值时,定性地派生人类适合大多数球队的甜蜜点 - 他们需要一个少时间承诺and the UX team can gather necessary data in parallel with their other work. Because qualitative personas are based on user data, they are accurate and provide key insights about user motivations, expectations, and needs that are impossible to get from either analytics data, demographic info, or assumptions alone.

Cons of Qualitative Personas

定性人物的大缺点是:

  1. 因为它们不是基于的large samples那there is no way to determine the proportion of your user population that each persona represents (e.g., you cannot say that桑德拉殷勤消费者是60%的user base).
  2. 有可能,由于样本大小,您无意中省略了一些具有独特特征的用户,或者具有具有罕见观点的超级异常异常值。
  3. 特别是在UX成熟度低的组织中(如果没有良好了解定性数据方法),您可能需要不断推动定性人物是“不科学”的声明。

Statistical Personas: Mix of Qualitative and Quantitative Research

The most labor-intensive version of persona creation involves collecting data via a survey sent to a large sample of your user base and then using statistical analysis to find clusters of similar responses. While I describe these as statistical personas, really, they are mixed-method personas, because they are based on both qualitative and quantitative research.

This type of personas requires some exploratory qualitative research beforehand to identify what questions to include in the survey. There are no universally relevant persona-survey questions that will result in personas that are actionable for your team. You must have a solid working knowledge ofyour specific用户“期望和需要创造一个会揭示任何有用的调查。

(While many teams have created personas based entirely on demographic or analytics data, without qualitative research, we不推荐这种方法,因为它导致ux决策有限的效用有限的人。即使在高级别显示行为的分析数据,您也没有关于用户试图完成的信息的信息,为什么,为什么以及它对他们的感受。如果你不知道为什么someone did something, you’re going to have to make assumptions, which are often wrong. The whole point of personas is to put yourself in your users’ shoes and be able to understand what they want and why. Context is key here, and demographics and analytics data lack context.)

定性人物和统计角色之间的巨大差异是,而不是根据他们的答案手动聚类类似用户,从您的定性研究中汲取主要主题并创建一个您向许多人发出的调查。然后,您在调查数据上运行统计分析,以将用户聚集成类似的组(因为它们倾向于为大多数问题提供类似的响应)。它有效地从聚类过程中取出了人类偏见 - 但是你通过减少偏见而获得的,你可能会在批判中丢失关于用户之间的相似性是否有意义的批判性。

How Statistical Personas Are Made

创建统计角色的第一步与定性人物的相同:探索性定性研究,以确定用户中反复出现的主要主题。根据这种定性数据,创建一个调查,允许您以更大的规模收集有关主要兴趣主题的定量数据。调查至少100(理想为500个或更多)受访者 - 该统计分析技术使用大型样品尺寸更好。然后使用统计聚类技术,例如latent class analysis(适用于这些调查通常收集的分类数据以及还处理不完整的数据阱),因子分析或k均值聚类,以查找调查数据中的模式。

请注意:这种分析中经常出现的模式可能对设计者来说不对特别有意义,并且可能很难将用于根据这些分析进行分类的标准。

统计人物

There are three big reasons why statistical personas have advantages over the other methods:

  1. With a large sample, you can be confident that outliers are not overrepresented in your personas (i.e., that a person with an unusual mindset not shared by many others didn’t dramatically sway the results).
  2. You can know what percentage of your total user base each persona represents, which can be helpful for tradeoff decisions that benefit one persona over another.
  3. 您可以反向工程师角色聚类(使用discriminant analysis)弄清楚哪些调查问题最强烈预测某人被聚集在一起的人物。然后,您可以使用这些问题来招聘用户在未来的研究中,从而确保所有的角色都在您的所有学习中良好代表。

Cons of Statistical Personas

统计人员分割昂贵,耗时,并且需要统计分析的专业知识。除非您可以访问统计学家或数据科学家,否则此方法不太可能是富有成果的,不建议使用。

Furthermore, when done correctly, it requires running the entire qualitative-persona research AND doing all the statistical analysis too. Also, it’s not uncommon for a team to do all the statistical work and end up with personas that are very similar to purely qualitative personas based on the same qualitative research data.

In many ways, this technique is like cracking a walnut using a hydraulic press — yes, you can be certain that the walnut’s shell will be thoroughly cracked, but it’s massive overkill in most situations and can leave a mess if not done carefully.

概要

对于大多数团队来说,对角色的定性方法是合适的,因为它提供了坚实的数据的理解,对您的用户是谁以及他们想要的,具有成本效益,并且相对较快。ProTO Personas是极其精益团队的选择,他们有助于对准对用户的团队成员的假设。他们非常适合团队,否则无法使用人物(或用户研究),可以成为进一步研究的网关。统计人员是具有重要资源的团队的选项,但他们需要时间,努力,统计专业知识和要求,即无论如何,该团队从定性研究开始,有效复制努力。

更多了解我们在我们的方法中创建这些不同类型的方法的方法Personas研讨会