个人具有类似行为,目标和动机的用户群集的表示。As such, personas are fictional, yet still realistic because they embody the characteristics and behaviors of actual people. In product development, personas are used to communicate information about users and create a common ground among different team members by unifying their views and understanding of target users. Many design and development teams create personas early on in a project to ground their product decisions in user data and achieve user-centered design.

角色是一个熟悉的,但经常在用户体验领域的未充分利用工具。许多组织认为在设计项目中承诺的耗时或过于复杂的人员努力。我们更多地了解“典型”人物项目,我们surveyed 216 user-experience professionalswho shared their approaches to creating personas and the time it took their teams to conduct or review research, analyze data, and craft the personas.


Organizations take various approaches to creating personas, ranging from经验那data-intensive efforts that combine qualitative and quantitative data sources tononempirical,基于假设的努力依赖于现有的用户群体的知识。(除非Personas是纯粹的猜测,我们不推荐哪种猜测:您应该为您实际拥有的客户设计而不是梦想的客户,您可能希望拥有。)

Data-driven efforts are informed by specific empirical user research (both qualitative and quantitative) conducted for the purpose of creating the personas. These more extensive research undertakings may use insights from avariety of sources那such as usability testing, surveys, analytics, field studies, interviews, and market research.

On the other hand, other companies effectively create personas with little to no empirical-research data by taking advantage of assumptions and existing organizational knowledge from previous interactions with target users. Teams working with lower budgets, tighter schedules, or limited resources may choose this less data-driven approach, so they can still benefit from a user-centered focus but spend less time and money on the persona effort. I like to think of this type of personas as crowdsourced, as they are often created collectively by extracting insights from many individuals who have a deep understanding of the target user group. Personas should not, however, be completely fictional; they should be built on real insights from several people, and eventually validated for relevancy.




  1. 进行研究或收集数据
  2. Analyzing data
  3. 制作角色

Given that the empirical and nonempirical approaches to persona creation involve completely different types of work, to look at the amount of time it takes to create personas, we segment the survey data by the type of effort undertaken: primarily empirical or research-driven, or primarily nonempirical or assumption-driven. We also split the data by company size: teams with vast resources may have more time or budget available for persona efforts in comparison to teams at smaller organizations with potentially fewer resources. Additionally, we break out the total time by the 3 stages of persona creation: conducting research or gathering data, analyzing data, and crafting the persona.

图1:由公司规模和实证研究的数量创建人员的工作人员。拥有500名员工或更少的组织被认为是小公司;拥有500多名员工的组织被视为大公司。考虑了基于50%以上的实证研究数据的角色经验。Those based on 50% or less empirical data are considerednonempirical

Efforts Range in Size

As expected,small companies花费更少的时间创造角色。花费的时间从22.5到72.5个工作人员小时,具体取决于向努力的实证研究数据的数量。为了large companies,时间范围从55到102.5员工。



Both large and small companies reported that around 54% (54.5% for small companies, and 54% for large companies) of their personas were based on empirical research. Although smaller companies spent fewer hours creating their personas, they based them on empirical research in approximately the same percentage as their larger counterparts.

Happily, we can say that although personas take less time to create at smaller companies, the methodology for approaching persona research is as data-driven as that of the larger companies. Smaller companies are not saving time by limiting the amount of research-based insight that goes into creating them; they are simply taking less time for the effort as a whole.

为什么小公司更有效率?这是一个topic for future research, but possible explanations include having fewer stakeholders with competing goals, simpler approval processes, and spending fewer staff hours on large-team meetings to discuss the project. Smaller companies may also have smaller, more tightly defined target audiences that are easier to study.

Empirical Research Increases Time Investment

个人based on empirical data take longer to create than those based on nonempirical data. For both large and small companies, the amount of empirical research used to create the personas increases the timeframe of the effort as a whole. This increase is 86% for large companies, and 222% for small companies. Thus data-based persona creation almost doubles the time budget for large companies and it more than triples it for small ones. (Why is there a difference between small and large companies? Simply because the baseline in our comparison — the time taken for nonempirical personas— is so much lower for small companies than for large companies, as Figure 1 shows. )

Gathering Data for Personas Takes Most Time

Figure 2: Percentage of total time by persona-creation phase, split by empirical vs. nonempirical persona creation: Regardless of the type of approach, the biggest time-share was taken by Phase 1 (conducting research). (Percentages in the chart were calculated by calculating percentage by phase per company in each segment and averaging these values.)

无论是经验或非实践方法如何,团队在人物创作过程的第一阶段花费了大部分时间 - 开展研究和收集数据。另外两个阶段(分析数据和制作角色)较小,数据分析比制备实际角色更长。这次订购对小型和大公司来说都是如此 - 尽管小公司总体上的时间越来越少,但大型和小公司都花费了类似的百分比在角色创造的各个阶段。

与采用经验方法的团队相比,创造非阶层的人的团队在1阶段然而,即使对于基于大多数非副本数据的角色,研究阶段仍然存在,实际上取决于整体努力的最大份额。这个阶段可能包括在内someamount of empirical research, as well as gathering assumptions and existing insights from stakeholders and other individuals with a deep understanding of target users. Therefore, the research still exist, but, as Figure 1 shows, in absolute terms, it is less time intensive than for projects that are primarily empirical.

A final conclusion from Figure 2 is that the actual creation of the personas is the step that takes the least time. Of course, the personas are the goal for the entire process, but creating this可交付只是一个更实质的冰山一角。

Planning For Personas

个人can be a powerful tool for focusing teams and creating user-centered interfaces. Not knowing how much time and effort are required to create this supplementary design tool could deter some project teams from investing in them at all. Ignorance is fear, but knowledge is power: our research can help teams decide whether to invest in personas, to what degree, and using what approach.

Now you know that personas won’t break your budget and can be created in half a week in a pinch. (Followed by the later step of不时更新角色。)

We discuss creating personas and selecting the right size of persona effort for your company in our full-day coursePersonAs:将用户数据转换为用户居中的设计