在你生命中的某个时刻,你可能被告知不要以封面来评判一本书。然而,在网络上,人们通常会这样做:我们通过在第一个页面上看到的内容来判断一个网站,以及它包含的产品或服务。对设计的某些方面的负面情绪反应会降低网站的感知价值,并使人们放弃网站——通常情况下within a few seconds。On the other hand, if we like what we see and the page matches our期望,我们为网站及其产品或服务赋予高价值。

定义:感知价值是产品或服务相对于目标的主观价值。它从用户到用户和任务:for example, if the goal is to read the latest world news, an e-commerce site selling shoes will have a zero perceived value in relation to that goal (however, it may have higher value if the goal was to kill time). Perceived value is based on user opinion and not necessarily on data or logic.

Expected Utility: Perceived Value vs. Perceived Cost

最终,决定用户是否会参与你的网站的是他们对网站预期效用的评估:感知与感知到的成本of interacting with the site. According to the信息觅食理论,people behave on the web like animals in the wild: they assess the perceived value of a new foraging patch against the perceived cost (effort) of obtaining that food. On the web, each new page is a patch, and the food is the information. The effort of obtaining the information is the交互成本。因此,人们通过权衡该网站可能提供与现场所需的努力的价值来终止在网站上停留的预期效用。

通过提高网站的可用性,我们降低了相互作用成本,从而增加了预期的效用。但请记住perception互动成本(即用户对使用该网站的难度的评估几乎和实际的交互成本(i.e., the real effort required to use the site): theperceived cost drives the initial assessment of the site’s expected utility. 因此,要说服人们坚持和深入研究网站,必须准确反映组织的质量和传达易用性。如果乍一看,用户不相信这个网站值得他们花时间和精力,那么他们就没有理由留下来了。

我们网站上的大部分文章都manbetx官网手机登陆致力于通过decreasing the interaction cost。In this article, however, we focus on the other component of the expected utility: the perceived value of the site.

什么影响感知价值

有许多影响现场的感知价值;有些人对UI本身有关,但其他人与营销,品牌感知或公司的具体发布有关。例如,如果唯一将为我延长信用卡的银行具有较差的界面,我可能会与银行的网站进行聘用,无论其UI还是视觉设计的品质。或者,如果我的所有朋友使用某种社交网络,我将为其网站或应用程序附加更高的感知价值,无论是积极的第一印象还是没有。

In the physical world, we often assess the value of a shop based on the storefront: displaying many items in the front window may signal cheaper prices and lower quality, while a few products in a large window may convey exclusivity and higher value. (This assessment is related to people’s稀缺性偏差: many items crammed into a display appear easy to obtain, while a single object seems more elusive.)

2店面的照片:1,许多物品挤入窗户,1只显示3个套装。
These two stores sit across the street from each other in my local downtown. Where I choose to shop is greatly affected by how each storefront presents itself.

在网络上,视觉特征,如页面上的内容或图形元素的数量、照片的质量和主题以及设计中使用的颜色往往对网站的整体感知产生最大的影响。

就像实体店面一样,杂乱无章的网页会降低组织的感知价值。杂乱无章和杂乱无章的内容表明缺乏对细节的关注,或者无法将信息提炼成有意义的摘要,这是由于光环效应,人们认为反映了业务的整体性质。

The most important thing to remember is that the initial perception of the site must actually match the business — not every website needs to strive to create a perception of luxury and sophistication, as what is valuable to one user may be at complete odds with another. The “budget” impression communicated by Tigerair’s bright colors and dense presentation of deals works well because the company’s value proposition is low price, not exceptional service. If a flight with Tigerair was more expensive than a seemingly higher-end Singapore Airlines’ flight, for example, the user would likely not purchase because such a disparity does not match the expectation set up by the website design. On the other hand, users who care about hospitality and service will prefer the sophisticated design of Singapore Airlines to the cute graphics of Tigerair.

新加坡航空和Tigerair网站截图
想订亚洲各地的机票吗?每一个网站的视觉设计都会让人立即对每一家航空公司的价格和服务水平做出假设。新加坡航空(左)较暗、柔和的设计给人的印象是成本更高,但服务更好;相比之下,Tigerair(右)上明亮的颜色和可爱的图形让人感觉到廉价航空公司。每个网站的感知价值取决于对用户来说最重要的是:价格还是服务。

The importance of perceived value communicated through a website came up during a recent usability study for a client. In this study, details such as color combinations, imagery, and displayed awards communicated sophistication and the promise of excellent service. In contrast, several competitor sites with less compelling visual design were judged to belong to discount brands or to organizations devoting less attention to detail. These initial impressions准备就绪the remainder of the participants’ visits: on sites where users perceived the brand was too “discount” for their tastes, they only half-heartedly proceeded with the given task and stopped as soon as they found the smallest amount of relevant information rather than exploring more deeply. (And it’s likely that they would have stopped even sooner if they were by themselves at home:people tend to work harder in a test session。)

感知是现实

用户对你的网站的最初印象在网站的感知价值中起着很大的作用,并且可以决定他们是否会参与到网站中来。决定留在你的网站上的用户会从第一印象的角度来看待他们所遇到的一切。你可以通过确保网站传达正确的信息和良好的可用性(也就是说,它只需要很少的努力就可以与之交互),从而提高网站的预期效用。