UX专业人员旨在创建尽可能的客户体验,尽可能有效地为用户目标服务。为此,我们开展用户的研究以了解我们的用户,他们的需求,以及他们可能遇到的障碍,因为他们试图满足这些需求。我们通常会指的是这些障碍痛点- 产品或服务客户体验的问题。

这phrase ‘customer experience’ is crucial in the definition of a pain point.我们所定义的其他地方客户体验as encompassing three levels: the interaction level, the journey level, and the relationship level. A pain point can be an issue at any of these three levels — it could be related to a particular interaction with an interface (in which case it is usually called a可用性问题),在客户试图实现目标的旅程中,或者客户与公司拥有的纵向体验。

Let’s first look at a few examples of pain points at the three levels:

1.相互作用级别疼痛点:用户从支持人员传递给人员。

We’ve all been there — we call customer support, say what we need, only to be passed to another department who “will be able to handle that request.” Not only is time wasted, but we have to explain our issue over again. Even more, there are often discrepancies in the information we are told. This type of interaction causes wasted time and confusion.

2.旅程级别疼痛点:用户订购订单并不会收到几个月。

I recently purchased a Peloton bike. After ordering it, I was alerted that the bike would be delivered 3 months from my order date. While this wait time was disappointing, it was somewhat expected given the high demand for the bikes during COVID-19. However, after the 3-month wait, I received a call that the bike would be delivered while I was scheduled to speak at a NN/g UX Conference. Upon calling customer support to reschedule, I was given the choice to take the assigned appointment or reschedule my delivery appointment to another 3 months from then. The pain point in this journey was the long duration between the beginning of the journey (the bike purchase) and the completion of the journey (taking my first ride on the bike). Additional point points included the lack of upfront communication about wait times, the need to call customer support to reschedule delivery, and the lack of flexibility in appointment times.

3. Relationship-level pain point:用户支付服务,但仍然必须观看广告。

我支付订阅Hulu播放电视节目s. However, I still have to watch advertisements periodically. This is an anomaly compared to other streaming services (Netflix and HBO Max, for example) and does not meet my user expectations or industry norms. These advertisements are a pain point in my overall relationship with Hulu — my trust in the company is diminished due to the financial commitment I’ve made, without equal reward. Not only that, but the ads have prompted me to waste time reading forums and contacting Hulu support to solve this problem with no success.

疼痛点是多元化的;它们可以是广泛的或特异性,严重或相对微不足道的,明显或隐藏。识别疼痛点是创建解决用户真实需求的解决方案的第一步。

Pain Points vs. Usability Issues

在UX世界中,术语被抛出并膨胀。本文并不意味着为传统可用性问题创建另一个单词,而是定义比可用性问题更广泛的概念。以相同的方式,客户体验需要定义为比可用性或交互级别的用户体验更广泛,因此疼痛点需要被定义为超出传统可用性问题的全部包含问题。

记住,痛点include usability issues(those are pain points at the interaction level), but can also include other, higher- level issues in the customer journey or in the overall relationship between customers and organizations.

疼痛点对用户的影响

All pain points incur a cost to users — whether it’s time and extra steps that they need to take or actual money that they lose. Some pain points translate in increased互动成本cognitive load。这通常是可用性问题的情况。例如,容易出错的复杂工作流程可能导致相互作用成本增加 - 用户必须采取其他步骤来修复错误。或者,界面可能如此复杂的是,用户可能需要呼叫辅助(因此经历相互作用成本的增加)。

其他痛点将产生a time cost- 例如,如果用户需要等待长时间进行进程完成。

Occasionally, there is also afinancial cost给用户。例如,如果互联网提供商具有频繁的中断,则可能被迫使用其手机作为热点并产生额外的数据成本。

最后但并非最不重要的是,用户对痛苦点的表现较小丧失信任和信心。与公司的无意义互动常常让用户具有被背叛的感觉;随着时间的推移,这些经验削弱了公司的整体信任,可能导致用户终止与本组织的关系。

How We Identify and Prioritize Pain Points

我们可以使用各种UX研究方法识别每种类型的疼痛点,然后根据上下文适当的标准优先考虑它们。

互动水平

确认:可以通过用户研究检测相互作用级别疼痛点(即可用性问题),例如可用性测试。大多数UX一直关注识别这些类型的问题。

Prioritize:Traditionally,可用性问题根据其严重程度进行分类那which can be based on the issue’s impact on the user and on the popularity of the product, how often the problem occurs, and also if a user is likely to encounter it more than once.

Journey Level

确认:通过用户访谈,日记和实地研究以及客户旅程测绘等探索性研究,找到旅程水平的疼痛点。这种方法允许我们在整个旅程中收集各种数据点,并评估互动如何融合以帮助用户达到目标。

Prioritize:Journey-level pain points often need pervasive organizational restructuring and internal process changes; they may even require a CX transformation. When prioritizing journey-level pain points, consider factors such as:

  • 影响这次旅程中的痛苦点:这一痛苦点的大部分程度受到了负面影响?它是否包含在多个旅程阶段的单阶段或广泛普及?
  • 可行性解决痛点:您的公司或组织在多大程度上可以确定能够成功地纠正疼痛点?

关系水平

确认:Relationship-level pain points are uncovered over long periods of time. Our goal is to assess the lifetime experience that a person has with an organization and their cumulative pain points as a patron of that organization. We identify pain points at this level via benchmarking surveys (measuring brand loyalty, likelihood to recommend, and overall customer satisfaction), analytics data, or technical infrastructure that tracks and manages data of individual customers. This kind of technical infrastructure requires that customer-behavior data from across the entire journey is integrated into a single source to create a单独的客户其中包括关于个人用户与公司关系的详细信息以及随着时间的推移与他们的行为。

Prioritize:关系级痛点是最复杂的,优先级最为复杂。他们需要合作许多商业单位来制定长期变化 - 内部和外部公司。优先考虑以下疼痛点:

  • 影响几个旅程中的痛苦点数:这个痛苦点的增加影响了多少旅程?它是否包含在一段旅程中或跨越多个旅程的广泛旅程?
  • 客户流失率由痛点引起的:由于这种痛苦点,有多少客户放弃贵公司?
  • brand loyaltylost as a consequence of the pain point: Are customers likely to use your product less? Will they be less likely to recommend it to others? Will they choose a competitor in the future?

结论

识别和修复疼痛点,更好的是,防止它们是我们作为UX专业人士的核心。他们为我们的工作宗旨,帮助我们关注我们的时间和资源。疼痛点,超过随机功能请求,应该是设计更改的驱动程序。痛点中心围绕客户讨论。

虽然疼痛点永远不会理想,但解决所有这些都没有成本效益。权衡必须有时制作,并应对UX资源进行战略应用。一旦揭开了用户的痛点并优先考虑它们,探索潜在的解决方案并将工作策划到未来路线图