用户体验专业人士致力于创造尽可能有效地服务于用户目标的端到端客户体验。为此,我们进行用户研究,以了解我们的用户,他们的需求,以及他们在试图解决这些需求时可能遇到的障碍。我们通常把这些障碍称为痛点-产品或服务的客户体验中的问题。

这个phrase ‘customer experience’ is crucial in the definition of a pain point.我们定义的其他地方客户体验as encompassing three levels: the interaction level, the journey level, and the relationship level. A pain point can be an issue at any of these three levels — it could be related to a particular interaction with an interface (in which case it is usually called a可用性问题),客户试图实现目标的旅程,或客户与公司的纵向体验。

Let’s first look at a few examples of pain points at the three levels:

1.相互作用级别疼痛点:用户从支持人员传递到支持人员。

We’ve all been there — we call customer support, say what we need, only to be passed to another department who “will be able to handle that request.” Not only is time wasted, but we have to explain our issue over again. Even more, there are often discrepancies in the information we are told. This type of interaction causes wasted time and confusion.

2.旅程级别疼痛点:用户订购订单并不会收到几个月。

I recently purchased a Peloton bike. After ordering it, I was alerted that the bike would be delivered 3 months from my order date. While this wait time was disappointing, it was somewhat expected given the high demand for the bikes during COVID-19. However, after the 3-month wait, I received a call that the bike would be delivered while I was scheduled to speak at a NN/g UX Conference. Upon calling customer support to reschedule, I was given the choice to take the assigned appointment or reschedule my delivery appointment to another 3 months from then. The pain point in this journey was the long duration between the beginning of the journey (the bike purchase) and the completion of the journey (taking my first ride on the bike). Additional point points included the lack of upfront communication about wait times, the need to call customer support to reschedule delivery, and the lack of flexibility in appointment times.

3. Relationship-level pain point:用户为服务付费,但仍需观看广告。

我支付订阅Hulu播放电视节目s. However, I still have to watch advertisements periodically. This is an anomaly compared to other streaming services (Netflix and HBO Max, for example) and does not meet my user expectations or industry norms. These advertisements are a pain point in my overall relationship with Hulu — my trust in the company is diminished due to the financial commitment I’ve made, without equal reward. Not only that, but the ads have prompted me to waste time reading forums and contacting Hulu support to solve this problem with no success.

痛点是多样的;它们可以是广泛的或具体的,严重的或相对不重要的,明显的或隐藏的。确定痛点是创建满足用户实际需求的解决方案的第一步。

Pain Points vs. Usability Issues

在用户体验的世界里,术语被到处乱扔和夸大。本文并不是要为传统的可用性问题创建另一个词,而是要定义一个比可用性问题更广泛的概念。正如客户体验需要被定义为比可用性或交互级别的用户体验更广泛一样,痛点需要被定义为超越传统可用性问题的包罗万象的问题。

记住,痛点include usability issues(those are pain points at the interaction level), but can also include other, higher- level issues in the customer journey or in the overall relationship between customers and organizations.

痛点对使用者的影响

All pain points incur a cost to users — whether it’s time and extra steps that they need to take or actual money that they lose. Some pain points translate in increased互动成本cognitive load. 可用性问题通常就是这样。例如,容易出错的复杂工作流可能会导致交互成本增加—用户将不得不采取其他步骤来修复错误。或者,界面可能非常复杂,用户可能需要请求帮助(从而体验到交互成本的增加)。

其他痛点将产生a time cost-例如,如果用户需要等待很长时间才能完成一个进程。

Occasionally, there is also afinancial cost给用户。例如,如果互联网提供商具有频繁的中断,则可能被迫使用其手机作为热点并产生额外的数据成本。

最后但并非最不重要的是,用户对痛苦点的表现较小失去信任和信心。与公司的无意义互动常常让用户具有被背叛的感觉;随着时间的推移,这些经验削弱了公司的整体信任,可能导致用户终止与本组织的关系。

How We Identify and Prioritize Pain Points

我们可以使用各种UX研究方法识别每种类型的疼痛点,然后根据上下文适当的标准优先考虑它们。

互动水平

确定:交互层面的痛点(即可用性问题)可以通过可用性测试等用户研究发现。大多数用户体验都关注于识别这些类型的问题。

Prioritize:Traditionally,可用性问题根据其严重性进行分类,which can be based on the issue’s impact on the user and on the popularity of the product, how often the problem occurs, and also if a user is likely to encounter it more than once.

Journey Level

确定:通过用户访谈,日记和实地研究以及客户旅程测绘等探索性研究,找到旅程水平的疼痛点。这种方法允许我们在整个旅程中收集各种数据点,并评估互动如何融合以帮助用户达到目标。

Prioritize:Journey-level pain points often need pervasive organizational restructuring and internal process changes; they may even require a CX transformation. When prioritizing journey-level pain points, consider factors such as:

  • 这个影响整个旅程中的痛点:有多少旅程受到这个痛点的负面影响?它是包含在一个阶段,还是广泛分布在多个旅程阶段?
  • 这个可行性解决痛点的方法:你的公司或组织实际能在多大程度上成功地解决痛点?

关系层次

确定:Relationship-level pain points are uncovered over long periods of time. Our goal is to assess the lifetime experience that a person has with an organization and their cumulative pain points as a patron of that organization. We identify pain points at this level via benchmarking surveys (measuring brand loyalty, likelihood to recommend, and overall customer satisfaction), analytics data, or technical infrastructure that tracks and manages data of individual customers. This kind of technical infrastructure requires that customer-behavior data from across the entire journey is integrated into a single source to create a客户的单一视图其中包括关于个人用户与公司关系的详细信息以及随着时间的推移与他们的行为。

Prioritize:关系级痛点是最复杂的,优先级最为复杂。他们需要合作许多商业单位来制定长期变化 - 内部和外部公司。优先考虑以下疼痛点:

  • 这个影响几个旅程中的痛苦点数:这个痛苦点的增加影响了多少旅程?它是否包含在一段旅程中或跨越多个旅程的广泛旅程?
  • 这个客户流失率由痛点引起的:由于这种痛苦点,有多少客户放弃贵公司?
  • 这个brand loyaltylost as a consequence of the pain point: Are customers likely to use your product less? Will they be less likely to recommend it to others? Will they choose a competitor in the future?

结论

识别和解决痛点,更好的是,预防它们,是我们作为用户体验专业人员所做的核心。它们赋予我们工作的目标,帮助我们集中时间和资源。痛点,而不是随机的特性请求,应该是设计更改的驱动因素。痛点集中在围绕客户的讨论上。

尽管痛点从来都不是理想的,但解决所有这些痛点并不划算。权衡取舍用户体验资源应该被战略性地应用。一旦发现了用户的痛点并确定了它们的优先级,就要探索潜在的解决方案,并将工作规划到未来路线图.