手机改变了我们的生活方式d conduct everyday activities. Not only can we access almost any type of content on mobile, but with most mobile smartphones today we can deposit checks, accept credit cards, order food and pay for groceries, sign digital documents, and even lock our house door. Some of these tasks have become easier because of the existence of this new technology: the smartphone.

移动研究项目

在过去的7年里,我们在持续的自资制性可用性项目上携带,这些项目涉及正在进行重复的回合user testingon a variety of mobile websites and apps。Overall, 151 participants were part of this project: most of them were in the US, but we also ran sessions in Australia, Hong Kong, Netherlands, Romania, and the UK. In all these studies, participants brought their own mobile phones into our lab.

While最初的回合包括所有类型的手机(从触摸屏手机,Nontouch智能手机和特色手机),最近的研究仅集中在触摸手机上,反映了当前的市场渗透数字。此外,我们专注于我们的研究phablets(touchscreen smartphones with screens larger than 5.3 inch). Where applicable, we asked participants to show us the apps that they had installed on their phones, and then we gave them tasks to complete using either mobile apps or the web.

Besides user testing, we also used otherresearch methodssuch as diary studies and expert reviews. We have also tested a large variety of mobile sites and apps as part of client projects, but we can’t report specific findings from these studies. We obviously do use this confidential research to inspire and inform our publishable research.

移动的研究讨论ed here was separate from ourresearch on tablet user experience。Even though there are some similarities (e.g., hand-held touchscreens), tablets and phones are used somewhat differently and have slightly different interaction-design constraints, leading to different usability guidelines for designing for the two classes of devices.

Mobile Limitations and Strengths

Mobile phones come with strengths, but also limitations. These strengths and limitations play out in good mobile user experiences.

Small Screen

In spite of the modern trend towards larger-screen phones, what makes mobile phones so convenient and portable is their small size. Compared with desktop and even laptop screens, phone screens accommodate a lot less content. As a result, screen size is a serious limitation for mobile devices. The content displayed above the fold on a 30 inch monitor requires 5 screenfuls on a small 4-inch screen. Thus, mobile users must (1) incur a higherinteraction costin order to access the same amount of information; (2) rely on theirshort-term memoryto refer to information that is not visible on the screen. It’s thus not surprising thatmobile content is twice as difficult

Whenever you include a new design element or a new piece of content on the mobile screen, something else gets pushed out (orbelow the fold). Think hard of theopportunity cost每个新元素:如果遗漏元素b以包括元素a,则用户对用户意味着什么?元素比元素B更重要吗?内容和特征优先级is key. Although we provide general guidelines in this report, your answer likely depends on the kinds of users and tasks that you have.

Chromedenotes the user-interface elements that are instrumental in using a site or application. Users come to a site to find information that they need or to accomplish a task, not to contemplate the beauty of buttons, navigation, menus, and other design elements. Content is always of interest (whether on mobile or on desktop), butwhereas on desktop there is enough screen space for both content and chrome to coexist通常,在移动设备上,设计师必须downplay the chrome to make space for essential content

That doesn’t mean that chrome should disappear from mobile. In fact, it’s hard to create a usable interface with no chrome. However, designers need to accommodate a high内容到镀铬比率on the mobile screen.

Portable = Interruptible

Mobile phones areportable: most fit easily in a pocket or purse and they tend to follow us everywhere. Because we use phones in a variety of contexts and situations, we are more likely to be中断使用此类设备时:外部环境中的外部事件可能需要我们的注意力,并要求我们阻止我们在小屏幕上做的任何事情。作为结果,对移动的注意力往往是碎片化sessions on mobile devices are short。事实上,移动平均会话硬脑膜tion is 72 seconds. In comparison, our own studies show that on desktop, the average session is 150 seconds: more than twice as large.

短移动会话意味着我们必须design for interruptions: save state for users and allow users to save state.

Designers should save context and make it easy for users to recover context and resume an interrupted task. The mobile app or website must save state at all times and be prepared for such interruptions. It should also try to do the transition back to the app/website as smooth as possible, so that the user doesn’t have to redo work already done before the interruption.

此外,移动用户并不总是做出明确的决策,但可能希望在具有较大带宽或屏幕的上下文中返回某些内容。允许用户保存历史,并与自己或其他人一起发送或共享信息。并允许他们返回其他平台上的数据和access any actions they may have carried out on mobile.

但是设计中断的设计不仅意味着节省状态。它也意味着优先考虑必要simplifying tasks and interactions。因为注意力分散,努力向用户展示他们尽快所需的东西。用细节淹没它们并要求他们解析相关事实的文本墙壁并不中断。主旨应该始终来到细节之前。简单的任务更易于快速完成。与许多步骤和替代方案的恢复也更容易。

Single Window

Although some phone manufactures are trying to accommodate multiple windows on the screen at the same time, the limited size of the mobile screen makes that goal quite unpractical, even with today’s larger-screen phones. The vast majority of users only see a single window (and thus a single application or website) at a time; they cannot split the screen (as on the desktop) and work with two different apps simultaneously.

The single-window constrain means that design should beself-sufficient: Any mobile tasks should be easy to complete in a single app or on a single website. Users should not have to leave an app (or website) to find information that the app requires, but that it doesn’t provide. Remember that pen and paper, even if available, are often unusable on the go. If users must move information from one app to another, it’s likely that they will need to copy–and–paste it (or worse, rely on their memory and increase theircognitive load); the interaction will become more complex and error prone. Apps and websites should be self-sufficient and should not necessitate any external props, be them physical or virtual.

Touchscreen

Touchscreens come with many blessings and sins. Gestures represent a hidden, alternate user interface (UI), that, when built with the right affordances, can make the interaction fluid and efficient and can save screen real estate. But they also suffer from low memorability and discoverability. On the other hand, it’s hard to type proficiently on a tiny virtual keyboard and it’s easy to accidentally touch the wrong target.

Perhaps the biggest problem is related to打字:在软键盘上,用户需要在键入的内容和键盘区域之间不断地关注。在没有触觉反馈的情况下,触摸打字是不可能的;此外,键盘本身很小,钥匙很拥挤。

Anotherdifference between touch and other types of input such as mouseis that the目标大小需要优化达到时间,并最小化触摸的误差比鼠标的触摸相当大。因此,不仅是小于笔记本电脑或桌面屏幕的屏幕,而且按钮和其他目标需要大于常规监视器上的目标。

Because on a touchscreen there can be many target areas, it is easy to make accidental touches. Some can leave the user disoriented and unsure of what happened.Undo是原始的吗10 usability heuristics, and it is even more important on touch devices.

可变连接

Even in the era of fast cellular networks and ubiquitous Wi-Fi, coverage is not universal or equally good. Phone users frequently complain about connectivity problems. Every new page load translates into a significant waiting time when the network does not cooperate.

If you want users to finish their tasks on your mobile site or in your app, mind the waiting time. Design pages that are light, yet contain as much information as possible, to avoid many back–and–forth trips from client to server. Minimize the number of steps and, ultimately, the number of page loads.

GPS, Camera, Accelerometer, Voice, and Other Phone Features

Phones come with many limitations, but also with many unique features — some of them仅适用于应用程序, others also accessible for websites. The camera, microphone, and GPS are conveniently integrated into the device and can be easily used to make input easier and get around some of the difficulties of typing. Photographs can transmit more nuanced information that often cannot be easily captured in text (think of describing a product that you are looking at). Notifications enable users to be updated immediately of events that are relevant to them. Touch ID allows users to log in using a fingerprint, without typing passwords. And Apple Pay and Google Wallet enable users to use their phones to pay in real life or online, without entering a credit card.

If the phone comes with a camera, don’t ask users to type in barcodes. If the phone has a GPS feature, don’t have them enter zip codes. Use the phone features as much as possible to lessen users’ work.

新研究报告

我们的新报告中捕获了许多移动可用性调查结果Mobile User Experience。(Now published in a newer edition, reflecting events and research since this article was written.) Many guidelines reflect the current mobile patterns and interactions; old guidelines that were still retained were revamped with new examples.