Over the past 7 years, we have carried on an ongoing, self-funded mobile-usability project that involved doing repeated rounds ofuser testing上a variety of mobile websites and apps。Overall, 151 participants were part of this project: most of them were in the US, but we also ran sessions in Australia, Hong Kong, Netherlands, Romania, and the UK. In all these studies, participants brought their own mobile phones into our lab.
而initial roundsincluded all types of phones (ranging from touchscreen phones, nontouch smartphones, and feature phones), more recent studies focused on touch phones only, reflecting the current market-penetration figures. Moreover, the last of our studies exclusively involvedphablets.(touchscreen smartphones with screens larger than 5.3 inch). Where applicable, we asked participants to show us the apps that they had installed on their phones, and then we gave them tasks to complete using either mobile apps or the web.
Besides user testing, we also used other研究方法such as diary studies and expert reviews. We have also tested a large variety of mobile sites and apps as part of client projects, but we can’t report specific findings from these studies. We obviously do use this confidential research to inspire and inform our publishable research.
这里讨论的移动研究与我们分开research on tablet user experience。尽管存在一些相似之处（例如，手持式触摸屏），但是片剂和手机的使用稍微不同，并且具有略微不同的交互设计约束，导致用于为两类设备设计的不同的可用性指导。
尽管对大屏手机的现代趋势，是什么让手机如此方便，便携的是它们的体积小。与桌面甚至笔记本电脑屏幕相比，手机屏幕更少的内容。结果，屏幕尺寸是对移动设备的严重限制。在30英寸监视器上的折叠上方显示的内容需要5个小4英寸屏幕上的屏幕。因此，移动用户必须（1）造成更高的互动成本in order to access the same amount of information; (2) rely on their短期记忆to refer to information that is not visible on the screen. It’s thus not surprising thatmobile content is twice as difficult。
Whenever you include a new design element or a new piece of content on the mobile screen, something else gets pushed out (or折叠下方）。思想坚强opportunity costof each new element: what does it mean for the users if you leave out element B in order to include element A? Is element A more important than element B?Content and feature prioritizationis key. Although we provide general guidelines in this report, your answer likely depends on the kinds of users and tasks that you have.
“Chrome“表示使用站点或应用程序的乐器的用户界面元素。用户来到一个网站查找他们需要或完成任务的信息，而不是考虑按钮，导航，菜单和其他设计元素的美容。内容始终是感兴趣的（无论是否在移动或桌面上），但whereas on desktop there is enough screen space for both content and chrome to coexist, often, on mobile, designers must淡化铬为基本内容腾出空间。
That doesn’t mean that chrome should disappear from mobile. In fact, it’s hard to create a usable interface with no chrome. However, designers need to accommodate a highcontent–to–chrome ratio在移动屏幕上。
Mobile phones are便携式: most fit easily in a pocket or purse and they tend to follow us everywhere. Because we use phones in a variety of contexts and situations, we are more likely to beinterruptedwhen using such devices: an external event in the outside environment may demand our attention and require us to stop whatever we were doing on the small screen. As a result,attention on mobile is often fragmentedandsessions on mobile devices are short。事实上,平均移动会话持续时间7.2 seconds. In comparison, our own studies show that on desktop, the average session is 150 seconds: more than twice as large.
Short mobile sessions mean that we mustdesign for interruptions：保存用户的状态并允许用户保存状态。
Designers should save context and make it easy for users to recover context and resume an interrupted task. The mobile app or website must save state at all times and be prepared for such interruptions. It should also try to do the transition back to the app/website as smooth as possible, so that the user doesn’t have to redo work already done before the interruption.
Moreover, mobile users don’t always make definitive decisions, but may want to return to certain content in contexts with larger bandwidth or screen. Allow users to save history, as well as to email or share information with themselves or others. And also allow them toreturn to their data on other platforms并访问他们可能在移动设备上进行的任何操作。
But designing for interruptions doesn’t only mean saving state. It also meansprioritizing the essentialand简化任务和交互。Because attention is fragmented, strive to show users what they need as soon as possible. Flooding them with details and asking them to parse walls of text for relevant facts is not interruption friendly. The gist should always come before the minutiae. A simple task is easier to finish quickly. It’s also easier to resume than one with many steps and alternatives.
单窗口约束意味着设计寿ld beself-sufficient: Any mobile tasks should be easy to complete in a single app or on a single website. Users should not have to leave an app (or website) to find information that the app requires, but that it doesn’t provide. Remember that pen and paper, even if available, are often unusable on the go. If users must move information from one app to another, it’s likely that they will need to copy–and–paste it (or worse, rely on their memory and increase theircognitive load）;互动将变得更加复杂，容易出错。应用程序和网站应该是自给自足的，不需要任何外部道具，成为他们的物理或虚拟。
Perhaps the biggest problem is related totyping: on a soft keyboard, users need to continuously divide attention between the content that they are typing and the keypad area. Touch typing is impossible in the absence of haptic feedback; plus, keypads themselves are small and keys are crowded.
Another触摸和其他类型的输入之间的差异如鼠标那是target sizerequired to optimize the reaching time and minimize errors is considerably larger for touch than for mouse. So not only is the screen smaller than a laptop or desktop screen, but buttons and other targets need to be larger than those on a regular monitor.
因为在触摸屏上有很多目标区域，很容易造成意外触摸。有些人可以让用户迷失方向，不确定发生的事情。Undo是原来的一个10可用性启发式, and it is even more important on touch devices.
Even in the era of fast cellular networks and ubiquitous Wi-Fi, coverage is not universal or equally good. Phone users frequently complain about connectivity problems. Every new page load translates into a significant waiting time when the network does not cooperate.
GPS, Camera, Accelerometer, Voice, and Other Phone Features
手机有很多限制，也有许多独特的功能 - 其中一些available only to apps，其他人也可以访问网站。相机，麦克风和GPS方便地集成到设备中，可以轻松用于使输入更容易，并绕过一些打字的困难。照片可以在文本中传输通常不能轻易捕获的更细微的信息（想想描述您正在查看的产品）。通知使能用户可以立即更新与它们相关的事件。触摸ID允许用户使用指纹登录，而无需键入密码。Apple Pay和Google钱包使用户能够使用他们的手机在现实生活或在线支付，而无需输入信用卡。
If the phone comes with a camera, don’t ask users to type in barcodes. If the phone has a GPS feature, don’t have them enter zip codes. Use the phone features as much as possible to lessen users’ work.
New Research Report
Our many mobile-usability findings are captured in our new report移动用户体验。（现在在较新的版本中发表，反映了事件和研究以来。）许多指导方针反映了当前的移动模式和互动;仍然保留的旧指南被新示例改造。