基于广泛的研究,我们已经制定了专门的网站可用性指南小孩子,teenagers, 和长者. Each of these age groups have specific characteristics that designers must understand to attract young or old users to their sites.

但是中间的人呢?我们甚至没有对他们有一个真名 - 我通常只会致电25到60岁之间的人“主流用户。“这是迄今为止的most important age group有几个原因:

  • There are更多的人than in the young or old age groups. In the U.S.,49%人口介于25至60岁之间(35%的年轻人,16%的人年龄较大)。
  • Mainstream users have all the good jobs; they're therichest,他们在网上花费最多的钱。
  • Almost allB2B sitestarget this age group. This is especially true if we extend the "mainstream" definition to include people up to 65 years old; beyond that, we officially start calling them "seniors" in our usability research.
  • 几乎所有内联网users fall within this group, especially if we extend the age range to 65.

我刚刚完成了从我们的定量数据分析study last month即使年龄相关的差异不是研究的原始目标,也源于中年用户的一些见解。

按年龄的用户性能数据

Between the ages of 25 and 60, the time users need to complete website tasks每年增加0.8%.

换句话说,40岁的用户比30岁的用户需要8%,以完成相同的任务。和50岁的用户将需要额外的8%时间。(数学倾斜的读者将注意到,这种增加是线性的,而不是指数。)

考虑到我们研究中的61位使用者,这一发现在5%的水平上具有统计学意义。

Does this mean that people in their 40s or 50s can't do their jobs? Not at all. There are many other ways in which people get better with age.

Individual differences swamp25至60岁的小组中的微小与年龄相关差异。用户非常可变在他们使用网站和内联网。

I have a5-5-5 rule对于使用网站时的任务时间:通过广泛的研究,我们的数据显示

  • the最慢5%of users are
  • about慢5倍
  • as thefastest 5%用户数量,

意思是最慢的用户需要400%更多的时间执行同样的任务。相比之下,每年老化所造成的0.8%的差异相形见绌。

So, a fast 50-year-old will beat a slow 30-year-old every day — by several hundred percent.

Why Web Performance Declines With Age

两个因素导致任务时间增加0.8%。每增加一次年龄,用户:

  • 花费每页0.5%的时间更多, 和
  • visit 0.3% more pages每个任务。

In other words, the biggest factor is that older users需要更多的时间来理解页面,扫描文本,提取信息。一个较小但仍很重要的问题是人们导航更困难websites as they age.

随着年龄的增长,用户需要更多的时间来使用网站也就不足为奇了,即使是在25-60岁的主流人群中。这个人类衰老过程从25岁左右开始,并导致认知资源的侵蚀,丧失视力,降低反应时间,减少灵敏度。人们需要更多的时间才能获得同样的心理运营;它们具有较少的内存容量,并需要更长时间才能处理相同的感知输入。

All of these elements of human performance impact the speed with which users can get something done on a website.

还有一个协变的: the age at which people started using the Web. Because the Web is relatively new, a 50-year-old might have started using it at age 40, whereas a 30-year-old might have started at age 20. In contrast, by 2050, a 50-year-old will have used the Web since age 5, and thus benefit from 45 years of experience. A 30-year-old user in 2050 will have only 25 years' Web experience. This added experience might eventually allow older users to catch up and somewhat reduce the 0.8% gap. Although we obviously can't predict the future, my guess is that the age penalty will drop to around 0.5%/year. Still, this doesn't matter much for your Web strategy over the next 10 years: the 0.8% level is where we're at and where we'll remain for some time.

Mainstream Aging vs. Senior Citizens

因此,每年人们年龄在25至60岁之间,我们目前的估计是他们在使用网站时得到0.8%。

如何与我们的研究结果相比老年人74% slower在使用网站而不是主流用户?75典型的高级高级人数超过35岁的典型主流用户年龄40岁,因此每年0.8%应达到老年人的32%。

这里的差异是由这样一个事实来解释的:衰老开始得早,但在60岁左右急剧加速,尤其是70岁以后。认知、知觉和运动技能下降曲线呈曲棍球棍状。

这就是为什么separate usability guidelinesfor making websites usable for seniors. After 65 years of age or so, differences in user needs are so drastic that we require explicit steps to cater to them.

因此,0.8%/年减速仅适用于25-60岁的主流期。对于旧用户来说,性能更快地下降。

收入和网站绩效

在25-60岁的年龄组内,年龄和收入之间存在强烈的正相关:高级工作人员往往超过初级工作人员。我在分离年龄和收入影响后,我的估计每年的任务时间增加0.8%。因此,这是对自己的年龄的影响,控制收入。

分离出年龄的效果后,收入显示出对我们研究的61个用户的网络性能的略微显着影响(p = .09)。

去除年龄效应后,收入效应是人们需要的减少2.2%to use a websitefor every $10,000increase in earnings.

在这里,我们必须考虑因果关系:并不是因为人们赚更多的钱,他们更善于使用网站。事实上,解释恰恰相反:正是因为人们更善于使用网站,他们得到的报酬更高。或者,更现实地说,拥有卓越认知资源的人使用网站的速度更快,更大的大脑带来更大的利润。

(Outside the laboratory, there might indeed be some tendency to better Web performance simply because people are rich: being able to afford a bigger monitor can definitely improve your website use because you can see more information without scrolling. In our study, however, all test participants used the same type computer, the same screen, and the same speed Internet connection, so rich users didn't have equipment advantages. Thus, that's not the reason for our finding.)

Implications of the 0.8%/Year Performance Decrease

这些新的研究成果对网站设计有何实际意义?不多。尽管您需要为老年人和真正年轻的用户提供单独的指导,但是don't need different usability guidelines为您的50岁的VS和30岁的客户。

(显然,50岁和30岁的用户通常对不同感兴趣内容- 例如,它们可能对音乐的不同口味,但它们不需要不同的交互功能来访问他们的首选内容。)

鉴于Web的当前状态,afew percentage points' difference is simply not enoughto warrant special usability attention. You should focus on those usability issues that can almostdouble the business value你的网站(or your intranet)。

Usually, it's enough totest with 5 users因为一些测试会话就足以识别这些巨大的设计错误。事实上,我们需要61个测试用户来发现主流范围内的年龄差异,这很好地表明,我们谈论的是一种微妙的影响,在实际的设计项目中应该是第二或第三考虑因素。

I do have two actionable conclusions for you: