用户访谈是一个研究工具,可以为用户的需求和信仰提供深入,同时也是建立同理心。

不是所有的采访qualify as研究采访。研究面试专注于,虽然新闻访谈可能与用户面试有一些相似之处nonjudgmentallyand客观地收集有关用户需求,期望和与产品类别的相互作用的信息。因此,并非与用户的每次对话都可以被视为研究面试。

不幸的是,即使有了最好的意图,它也很容易偏见或影响您的参与者的回应。用户面试需要注意细节,并且可以出于多种不同的原因失败,但如果您专注于避免这些常见错误,您可以确保收集的数据是客观,无偏见和方法的声音。

Common Interview-Facilitation Mistakes

1.不足以建设建设

对一些人来说,小谈话可能会觉得不必要的苦难或浪费宝贵的面试时间。然而,在没有花费足够的时间建立融洽的情况下直接进入用户面试的直接进入和潜入,将限制您从该面试中获得的数据的质量(和数量)。

在接受人物的访谈中,在没有花太多时间的情况下建立融洽关系的一个好方法是从等候区(而不是将该任务委派给不同的人)来亲自接受参与者。即使你没有“等候区”或正在远程做访谈,请务必花一些时间设置音调并让您的参与者感到舒适。

That said, it is also easy to take rapport building too far. Some interviewers — in their effort to build maximum rapport and seem as likable as possible — might start to share their own experiences to build solidarity and empathy with the participant. However, this approach can skew participants’ responses by shedding light on what the interviewer is interested in and may also cause participants to withdraw if there is an experience that they do不是与面试官分享。

避免这个错误:

  • 介绍自己并向参与者询问他们的一天,beyond the scope of the interview. This type of interaction can provide valuable additional context about your customers and the lives they live outside of using our products and services.
  • 冷静而慢慢地说话,并尽量不要谈论比参与者更多。Participants will often "mirror" the researcher, so speaking slowly will help them remain calm as well. It also will give participants time to think about their responses. Aim to have the participant speak for roughly 80% of the interview time.
  • 在与参与者的互动中避免“采访”一词;将面试称为“聊天”,让它看起来不那么评价。“采访”一词往往与求职面试有关,可以增加焦虑(由于结果妨碍了关系)。

2.不够“探测”问题

探讨,或者要求跟进问题以获得具体的深入信息的行为是有效地揭示某些行为,态度和观点背后的动机和理由。探测问题就像“这会让你感觉如何?”,“你为什么这么认为是?”,或者“你能告诉我更多关于这一点吗?”可以让参与者分享更多信息或澄清他们在先前陈述中的意思。

如果您不习惯要求他们,这些类型的问题可以感到有点尴尬或侵扰;然而,不是询问探测问题可以限制参与者的反应的深度和特异性,并可以导致研究数据中的误解和歧义。研究人员可能会发现自己试图从用户报价中推断出意义(而不是依赖参与者的直接解释)。

避免这个错误:

  • 计划每次采访的可选后续问题正如您正在写的问题your interview guide即使你不是最终问他们,有一些准备的后续问题是很好的,以重新开始。These should be specific to the issue you are investigating (within this scope) and range in levels of specificity from broader (good at not assuming an answer) to very precise (something you really want to know, but don’t want to bring up yourself unless absolutely needed).
  • Keep a generic probes bankat the top (or bottom) of your interview guide so that you can fall back on them when needed, rather than repetitively asking “Why?” Generic questions are good at not leading the user, but you do need that bank of them, because it quickly gets annoying for a respondent to repeatedly be asked the same generic question (e.g., “How does that make you feel?”)

3.多任务和注意面试期间采取

当你唯一的研究员团队can be an especially difficult to commit your full attention to what the user is saying. Still, this is important, not only because it allows you to best interpret your participant’s words and gestures, but also because it builds the right kind of relationship with the participant. Preparation is key: the more you already know what to do next, the less you have to think about what comes next and can “live in the moment” and pay full attention to the participant.

Diverting your eyes from the participant to check your phone, answer a text message, or checking your watch can signal disinterest; so, turn off unnecessary applications and silence your devices. That said, the most common culprit of disrupted interviews is taking notes促进面试。This practice is problematic not only because it makes it hard to keep up with what your participant is saying and the participant has to wait for you, but also because it takes your attention and eye contact away from the participant and erodes the rapport you’ve been struggling to build.

To make matters worse, taking notes only when participants talk about something related to your research question can signal to them that some information is more desirable or interesting than other. Participants will often try to “please” the interviewer or be as helpful as possible, so they might alter their behavior to provide what seems to be most interesting or desirable to the researcher (rather than what is most representative of their experience).

避免这个错误:

  • 何时可能,记录面试并以后转录。A recording helps avoid misquotes and gives other researchers on your team access to the same “raw” data for later analysis. Be mindful that your data-management practices respect your participants’ privacy, so anonymize the recording as much as possible, and remind participants that what is shared is confidential. (Even if this information is stated in the emailed instructions, these disclaimers can sometimes seem like insincere “boilerplate” text, so be sure to also say it out loud).
  • 如果无法录制,则指定指定的备注表示。If, for any reason, it is not possible to record the interview, have an assigned notetaker, whose primary role is to take notes on the entire interview (not just areas of interest).

4. Allowing Observers to Influence the Interview

虽然对用户研究的兴趣很好,但面试房间的观察者可能会阻碍建立融洽关系的能力,这再次可以限制您的参与者是如何分享有关其经验的亲密细节。

An interview is meant to be a friendly one-on-one conversation; as you add observers who can insert their own questions, it can feel a lot more like an interrogation. While it is not necessarily a deal breaker to have an observer or two present during the interview, the less noticeable they are to your participant, the less awkward your interview will be.

避免这个错误:

  • 记录面试(如上所述),并以后向任何感兴趣的利益相关者或团队成员提供录音。这种策略使观察者完全摆脱房间,并确保建立融洽关系的最佳条件。也就是说,它也不适合帮助利益相关者或客户构建同理心和common ground那since they may watch only fragments of the interview (or not watch it at all).
  • 为观察员设定期望和地面规则。The interview facilitator should be the only person asking questions of the participant. Since observers are not actively building rapport with participants (and sometimes, may not be trained facilitators), the questions they may ask might not be received positively or might yield only terse responses. Set expectations and ground rules in advance (perhaps in a separate email or calendar invitation), and hold a short debrief for observers after the session (or series of sessions) so that any additional research questions can be factored into future interview iterations. (Note: If you're running the interviews via video chat, it may help to choose a meeting tool which hides the list of attendees from participants.)
  • Limit the number of interview staff in the roomto 3 people and keep them out of sight. — either through a two-way mirror or by placing them off to the side, out of the participant’s range of vision. If running interviews on video chat and you're unable to hide attendee lists, consider having observers remove their profile picture, or rename themselves to something less recognizable, like a random string of letters/numbers. Still, participants may be affected by the knowledge that they are being watched.

作为一个更一般的观点,大多数利益相关者才愿意投入有限的时间来观察用户研究。即使是UX团队的实际成员也可能没有时间观察所有研究,特别是如果他们不是研究人员。在这两种情况下,最好将大多数人的有限时间分配给观察行为的会话(如可用性测试)他们可以观看用户实际使用该产品。

5.领导参与者

The most compromising of all facilitator mistakes is inadvertently skewing participant behavior or兴奋。一些研究人员可能会意外地“展示他们的卡片”并揭示了研究研究的目的过早,从而偏见了参与者的贡献。

For example, if we told the participant, “We’re studying how much word-of-mouth recommendations impact real-estate purchases,” the participant may focus their responses on recent word-of-mouth recommendations. On the other hand, if we said, “We are studying how people go about their home-buying process,” the participant might reveal that they don’t use word-of-mouth recommendations at all, but spend a lot of time independently browsing online real-estate listings.

如前所述,肢体语言也可以是参与者。一个缓慢的头部点头变成了一个剧烈的人可能暗示他们的反应突然有趣的参与者。同样,问题是如何改变参与者的回应。例如,问题“在查看草坪维护设备时的价格是多么重要?”可能会产生一个可预测的“是的,价格非常重要”,因为它意味着应该考虑价格,大多数人希望以社会所需和可接受的方式回应。它也提醒人们,即使有些人可能不一定立即想到这一点。更好的问题是“选择草坪维护设备时使用的是什么因素?”

避免这个错误:

  • 在引入自己和研究时,保持研究的目的相对模糊,避免推卸用户。
  • Keep questions as开放式尽可能多并在缩小跟踪问题之前广泛启动主题。
  • 介意你的肢体语言并尽量保持在整个面试中保持一致。你不需要是严厉或机器人,而是确保您保持相对中立,但整个友好和兴趣。

Conclusion

采访是一种了解用户如何查看世界的方法。为了最大限度地提高您的研究质量,花时间建立融洽关系并专注于成为一个开放的倾听者。