Common Interview-Facilitation Mistakes
That said, it is also easy to take rapport building too far. Some interviewers — in their effort to build maximum rapport and seem as likable as possible — might start to share their own experiences to build solidarity and empathy with the participant. However, this approach can skew participants’ responses by shedding light on what the interviewer is interested in and may also cause participants to withdraw if there is an experience that they do不是与面试官分享。
- 介绍自己并向参与者询问他们的一天，beyond the scope of the interview. This type of interaction can provide valuable additional context about your customers and the lives they live outside of using our products and services.
- 冷静而慢慢地说话，并尽量不要谈论比参与者更多。Participants will often "mirror" the researcher, so speaking slowly will help them remain calm as well. It also will give participants time to think about their responses. Aim to have the participant speak for roughly 80% of the interview time.
- 计划每次采访的可选后续问题正如您正在写的问题your interview guide。即使你不是最终问他们，有一些准备的后续问题是很好的，以重新开始。These should be specific to the issue you are investigating (within this scope) and range in levels of specificity from broader (good at not assuming an answer) to very precise (something you really want to know, but don’t want to bring up yourself unless absolutely needed).
- Keep a generic probes bankat the top (or bottom) of your interview guide so that you can fall back on them when needed, rather than repetitively asking “Why?” Generic questions are good at not leading the user, but you do need that bank of them, because it quickly gets annoying for a respondent to repeatedly be asked the same generic question (e.g., “How does that make you feel?”)
当你唯一的研究员团队can be an especially difficult to commit your full attention to what the user is saying. Still, this is important, not only because it allows you to best interpret your participant’s words and gestures, but also because it builds the right kind of relationship with the participant. Preparation is key: the more you already know what to do next, the less you have to think about what comes next and can “live in the moment” and pay full attention to the participant.
Diverting your eyes from the participant to check your phone, answer a text message, or checking your watch can signal disinterest; so, turn off unnecessary applications and silence your devices. That said, the most common culprit of disrupted interviews is taking notes促进面试。This practice is problematic not only because it makes it hard to keep up with what your participant is saying and the participant has to wait for you, but also because it takes your attention and eye contact away from the participant and erodes the rapport you’ve been struggling to build.
To make matters worse, taking notes only when participants talk about something related to your research question can signal to them that some information is more desirable or interesting than other. Participants will often try to “please” the interviewer or be as helpful as possible, so they might alter their behavior to provide what seems to be most interesting or desirable to the researcher (rather than what is most representative of their experience).
- 何时可能，记录面试并以后转录。A recording helps avoid misquotes and gives other researchers on your team access to the same “raw” data for later analysis. Be mindful that your data-management practices respect your participants’ privacy, so anonymize the recording as much as possible, and remind participants that what is shared is confidential. (Even if this information is stated in the emailed instructions, these disclaimers can sometimes seem like insincere “boilerplate” text, so be sure to also say it out loud).
- 如果无法录制，则指定指定的备注表示。If, for any reason, it is not possible to record the interview, have an assigned notetaker, whose primary role is to take notes on the entire interview (not just areas of interest).
4. Allowing Observers to Influence the Interview
An interview is meant to be a friendly one-on-one conversation; as you add observers who can insert their own questions, it can feel a lot more like an interrogation. While it is not necessarily a deal breaker to have an observer or two present during the interview, the less noticeable they are to your participant, the less awkward your interview will be.
- 记录面试（如上所述），并以后向任何感兴趣的利益相关者或团队成员提供录音。这种策略使观察者完全摆脱房间，并确保建立融洽关系的最佳条件。也就是说，它也不适合帮助利益相关者或客户构建同理心和common ground那since they may watch only fragments of the interview (or not watch it at all).
- 为观察员设定期望和地面规则。The interview facilitator should be the only person asking questions of the participant. Since observers are not actively building rapport with participants (and sometimes, may not be trained facilitators), the questions they may ask might not be received positively or might yield only terse responses. Set expectations and ground rules in advance (perhaps in a separate email or calendar invitation), and hold a short debrief for observers after the session (or series of sessions) so that any additional research questions can be factored into future interview iterations. (Note: If you're running the interviews via video chat, it may help to choose a meeting tool which hides the list of attendees from participants.)
- Limit the number of interview staff in the roomto 3 people and keep them out of sight. — either through a two-way mirror or by placing them off to the side, out of the participant’s range of vision. If running interviews on video chat and you're unable to hide attendee lists, consider having observers remove their profile picture, or rename themselves to something less recognizable, like a random string of letters/numbers. Still, participants may be affected by the knowledge that they are being watched.
The most compromising of all facilitator mistakes is inadvertently skewing participant behavior or兴奋。一些研究人员可能会意外地“展示他们的卡片”并揭示了研究研究的目的过早，从而偏见了参与者的贡献。
For example, if we told the participant, “We’re studying how much word-of-mouth recommendations impact real-estate purchases,” the participant may focus their responses on recent word-of-mouth recommendations. On the other hand, if we said, “We are studying how people go about their home-buying process,” the participant might reveal that they don’t use word-of-mouth recommendations at all, but spend a lot of time independently browsing online real-estate listings.
- Keep questions as开放式尽可能多并在缩小跟踪问题之前广泛启动主题。