Digital copy in choices offered by an interface is powerful. The words that appear in interfaces can support optimal decision making or they can persuade users to take an action that is against their best interests.
In their 2008 bookNudge,Richard Thaler和Cass Sunstein认为，中立的选项呈现不存在。当你要求某人做出选择时，你如何提供替代品会影响答案。（这个effect被称为框架，可能是对某些意见民意调查的怀疑的原因。）知道你可以改变某人会回答问题的方式，你怎么问？
在presentation of a choice can support optimal decision making or it can lead people to be more likely to choose something that they will later regret. A “nudge” can be any element of the architecture of a choice that makes people more likely to make certain decisions.
选择架构in User Experience
- 视觉设计：在visual styling of options in an interface can influence the actions users will take. One option may be larger than the others, placed in a spot where people are more likely to look, or given particular visual weight.
- Interaction design:在design of an interaction flow can steer people towards one choice. Designing the available paths of interaction in a way that prompts people to make choices without enough information leads to uninformed decision making.
- Interface elements: The interface elements used in presenting choices limit or expand the options available. Presenting a choice with aradio button迫使人们选择一个选项。提供the same choice with a复选框系列allows people to select as many answers as they feel are correct.
- Language: the words that we use change the choices that users may make. The digital copy used in both the main content of a website and in the interface itself establishes context and crafts the choices offered.
Each element can influence the decisions that people will make online. This article concentrates on the language used on the interfaces themselves. Interface copy sets the tone of a decision by changing the wording used in the options that users have available. We’ve observed that the trend towards using操纵，有贫困语言has spread into many types of interface copy. When the choices available to users are presented in manipulative language, that interface copy demonstrates a dark pattern.
Scare Tactics and Loss Accentuation
人们觉得the pain of losses more strongly比他们感受到收益的快乐。我们经常不害怕失去行动。这种恐惧可以用于呈现选择，以提示用户采取行动，因此它们最小化他们在遇到损失可能性时感受的情绪不适。
This screenshot above shows an offer to protect a trip reservation. Choosing protection is clearly the direction in which the company nudges the user. The option to choose cancellation protection isvisually emphasized- 它首先出现在粗体文本中，并与已预订的旅行的总成本的链接。下面是拒绝取消保护的选择。界面中的语言draws attention to the potential for loss。副本重复在取消事件时将丢失的确切金额，为简单的选择添加焦虑的语气。
Concentrating copy on the potential for a loss makes people more likely to change their choice. People pay more attention tonegative experiencesthan they do to positive ones. Fear is a powerful motivator that changes the architecture of a choice.
Economists often say that scarcity fuels demand. We perceive rare objects and time-limited deals as more valuable. Limiting the time available to make a choice demands immediate action. Suddenly, the availability of one option is restricted and a user must react quickly rather than evaluating all possible choices.
During the process of signing up for the Blue Apron meal-kit service, a modal popup appears. It offers a limited-time deal to entice reluctant customers into making a purchase. Presenting this choice as a modal window改变互动的流程: suddenly something surprising hides what the user had been working on before. Urgently written copy begs the reader to坚持，稍等！and take advantage of a deal. The only options are toReject $50 OfforGet $50 Off。
This designintroduces artificial scarcity然后框架用户必须作为接受或拒绝一次性交易的决定。界面副本未解释为什么此交易仅在未来三十分钟内可用。创建稀缺性改变了选择的架构: instead of choosing to try the service or opting out, the user must now choose to accept or reject a surprise discount.
在framing effectsays that the context used to describe a question or decision impacts the answer that people will give. A needy pattern in choice architecture is adding emotional context to a decision that does not usually involve strong emotion. It may take one of the following forms:
- 描述一个选择是作为一个选择reflection of fundamental truths about the user(e.g., by suggesting what a generous/smart/exceptionally tasteful person the chooser of that option is)
- 提供choices in emotionally charged languagethat presents an ordinary option in an interface as a noble decision or a horrible mistake
Many businesses choose to have customers pay for the costs associated with processing credit card payments. However, the interface shown above frames the addition of that fee as a generous act. The interface copy saysI choose to add $2.20 to cover the fees to process my donationnext to a checkbox that is active by default. Many websites simply note that an additional fee will be added if users choose to pay by credit card, but the language used here turns an everyday part of life online into an unusually emotional moment.
Mismatch Between the Choice Described and the Options Displayed
In interface design, thematch between the system and the real worldhelps people learn to navigate an online system. A similar match needs to exist betweenthe options described by digital copy和actions available在界面中。
Trunk Club’s copy promises more flexibility than it actually delivers. The language in the main heading (Get Trunks when you want them)and in the secondary heading (我们不是订阅服务 - 选择获得一次或重复的中继，您可以随时取消）does not match the options that users can select. First, the user can only select among three different frequency choices, and, second, all choices are subscription-based. The option for “one time” delivery does not actually appear as a choice at this stage of the signup process.
Our research for our recent ecommerce report found thatusers are less forgiving of inaccurate information than everwhen preparing to make a purchase. A mismatch between thecopy used to describe a serviceand用户实际上可以制造的选择is an easy way to lose trust.
In usability testing I often notice that people read choices on an interface in the first person. As they think aloud, they talk about the choices shown on a screen in terms of他们想要什么andwhat they will decide to do。他们说“我能做......”在读取一个单选按钮或“我想要...”之前在单击一组中的一个按钮之前。
在copy that you use in choices on your interface asks people to agree with a statement. That statement is often about themselves or the actions that they wish to take. It’s important from auser-experience standpointand from abusiness perspective写入支持的界面副本，而不是破坏决策过程。信任，期望和积极的自我形象全部塑造用户将拥有产品的关联。诚实的，直接呈现的选择会产生信任和积极的情感。
Remember that customer satisfaction is more important than a fewconversions这里和那里。人们会记住，企业要求他们在压力或被削弱的策略下做出决定。短期策略喜欢invasive advertisements那please-don’t-go popups而且操纵选择架构可能会导致一些快速的销售，但它们会破坏企业创造长期客户忠诚度的努力。
Thaler, R.H. & Sunstein, C. R. (2008).Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth and Happiness。New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.