我们从第一次研究用户如何在网上阅读that they typically don't read very much.扫描对于识字率较高的用户来说,文本是一种非常常见的行为;我们的最近的眼球追踪研究进一步验证这一发现。

我们唯一缺少的是一个数学公式来精确地量化人们在线阅读的数量。现在,由于新的数据,我们也有了这个。

The Research Study

For full details, see the following academic paper:

Harald Weinreich、Hartmut Obendorf、Eelco Herder和Matthias Mayer:Not Quite the Average: An Empirical Study of Web Use," in the网络上的ACM事务,vol. 2, no. 1 (February 2008), article #5.

In the study, the authors instrumented 25 users' browsers and recorded extended information about everything they did as they went about their normal Web activities. What's important about this study is that it wascompletely naturalistic: the users didn't have to do anything special.

One downside of the study is that the users had above-average intelligence, with several being university employees. This might not be a problem in the long run, however. If, for example, we comparedata we collected in 2008为了我们的顶级Web用户体验设计指南我们在2004年进行了一项类似的研究,我们发现2008年的平均行为接近2004年的高端用户。因此,尽管Weinreich等人的数据代表的是高端用户,但它很可能相当代表未来更广泛的用户行为。事实上,作者在2005年收集了他们的数据,所以记录的行为可能已经相当普遍了。

In any case, the research yielded several interesting findings, and the full paper is well worth reading.

Among other things, the authors found that theBackbutton is now only the 3rd most-used featureon the Web. Clicking hypertext links remains the most-used feature, but clicking buttons (on the page) has now overtakenBackto become the second-most used feature. The reason for this change is the increased prevalence of applications and feature-rich Web pages that require users to click page buttons to access their functionality.

Of course,Backis still the user's lifeline并且被如此频繁地使用以至于支持它仍然是一个强大的可用性指导方针。(破碎Back是的#1999年1次设计失误这是迄今为止最严重的错误之一。)

现实生活中的阅读行为

Harald Weinreichgraciously provided me with the dataset detailing 59,573 page views.

From this data, I removed the following records:

  • 10163次页面浏览(17%),持续时间不到4秒。在如此简短的“访问”中,用户显然bounced没有真正的“使用”页面。
  • 2615页面浏览量(4%),持续了十多分钟utes. In these cases, users almost certainly left the browser open while doing something else.
  • 1,558 page views (3%) with fewer than 20 words on them. Such pages are probably server errors or disrupted downloads.

After cleaning the dataset, I was left with45237页浏览量for my analysis.

我能够拟合出非常好的公式来描述用户对于包含中间内容的页面的阅读行为30 and 1,250 words. 对于较长的页面,阅读变得相当不稳定。字数巨大的页面很可能不是“真实”的页面——它们更可能是学术论文或“条款与条件”页面,人们不会给出一天中的时间。(为这本书进行研究)Prioritizing Web Usability,我们发现人们只阅读了他们认为“同意”的文本的10%。)

The following chart shows the average time users spend on pages with different word counts:

散点图:横轴上的字数和纵轴上的平均访问时间。

Obviously, users tend to spend more time on pages with more information. However, the best-fit formula tells us that they spend only每增加100个字就多出4.4秒.

通常,我假设阅读速度为每分钟200个单词(WPM),但由于这项研究中的用户识字率很高,我会选择每分钟250个单词。在这种阅读速度下,用户可以在4.4秒内阅读18个单词。因此,当您在页面中添加措辞时,您可以假设客户阅读率为18%of it.

Percentage of Text Read

This wasn't an eyetracking study, so we don't know precisely how users allocated their time on the Web pages. The formula in the chart above indicates that there is a fixed time of about 25 seconds, plus an additional 4.4 seconds per 100 words. (Of course, the numbers are not "fixed" in the sense that they're always the same — these are averages.)

这个公式似乎表明,人们花了一些时间来理解页面布局和导航功能,以及查看图像。很明显,人们并不是每一秒钟都在浏览网页。

然而,花在一页上的总时间绝对是可能的阅读时间的上限。因此,我们可以计算假设的用户能够阅读的最大字数,如果他们将整个页面访问分配给阅读。

The following chart shows the maximum amount of text users could read during an average visit to pages with different word counts:

Scatterplot: word count on the horizontal axis and the largest proportion of this time users have time to read on the vertical axis

This is a very rapidly declining curve. On an average visit,users read half the information只在那些有111 words or less.

In the full dataset, the average page view contained593 words. 因此,平均而言,用户将拥有time to read 28%字里行间if他们把所有的时间都花在阅读上。更现实的是,用户会阅读大约20%的课文on the average page.

As an example of word count on various pages, here's the total for some popular Alertbox columns:

Blah-Blah Text: Keep, Cut, or Kill? 902
This column 1,068
被动语态被用来代替网页标题 1,079
更改已访问链接的颜色 1,209
Intranet Information Architecture (IA) 1,991
Top-10 Application-Design Mistakes 3,572

Clearly, the average visitor won't make it too far through most of my articles. But I've consciously针对的是一小部分精英读者with a firm commitment to usability. If you target a broader audience or have sales cycles that are shorter than 5 years, you'd be wise to put your word count on a strict diet.

完全Report

完全关于用户如何在网上阅读的跟踪报告可供下载。

(See also in-depth training网络写作课程.)