Recently, facial-recognition payment (FRP, or扫描面部支付, 刷脸支付) has gained popularity in China as a new digital-payment method at physical stores.

与美国不同的是,中国已经将广泛的移动支付作为主要的购物方式。在一些地方,现金是不被接受的-只有移动支付。一个中国购物者可以不带钱包离开家,只要她有手机。

这种无钱包的现实很大程度上是由于QR-code scanning:人们扫描商店的QR码并支付电话上的订单金额。面部识别进一步迈出了这一过程 - 你甚至不需要你的手机,只是你的脸。

How Facial-Recognition Payment Works

Let’s look at the example of a bakery called WeiDuoMei. A specialized touchscreen device is placed at the checkout counter of the bakery. It’s similar in size to an iPad Mini. Produced by either Ali or Tencent (which are the two companies that monopolize the mobile-payment market in China), the device has access to the facial-information database of the parent company. So, if Tencent has your picture, you will be in its facial-information database, and the machine will be able to find you.

这cashier enters the amount of money for the order, which is then shown on the device screen. A user just needs 10 seconds and two taps to finish the payment:

  1. 用户水龙头Pay with Face Recognition在the screen of the device. The device scans the face and recognizes the user.
  2. 用户然后点击Confirm Paymentand is done.
A user tapped Pay with Face Recognition and then Confirm Payment to pay
这specialized device supported facial recognition payment of Ali Pay in a bakery in Beijing. A returning user used facial-recognition payment to pay in 2 steps within 10 seconds.

面部识别支付与面部识别

乍一看,面部认可金可能看起来非常相似,使用Apple在iPhone上使用Apple支付:较新的iPhone(iPhone X和Newer)使用“面部ID”来检查身份并批准付款。但是,这里的关键差异是依赖于设备。要通过面部ID使用Apple Pay,用户必须拥有延迟模型iPhone,必须与它们一起使用,并至少部分收费。要在中国使用FRP,用户只需要验证WeChat或者阿里支付账户和相关的银行账户,不管他们有什么类型的手机(或者如果他们有电话)。

这项技术使更多的观众能够用脸付费,而不用担心设备的兼容性。虽然所有新款iPhone和像素机型都有人脸识别功能,但这些设备在中国并不常见。事实上,中国最流行的中高级智能手机没有人脸识别认证,仍然使用指纹或密码进行认证。因此,FRP甚至允许那些拥有老式手机的用户用脸付费。

A hardware vendor has an obvious interest in tying an important aspect of society (in this case, money) to a piece of equipment, but for users, it’s much better not to have to carry stuff around or to be locked into specific products.

Payment Methods

设备要求

软件要求

时间成本

Apple Pay or Android Pay

一个支持面部识别的手机

Credit/debit card preset in Apple Pay

Within 15s

QR-code scanning

A smartphone with a camera

An Ali Pay/WeChat account and an associated bank account

30秒–1分钟

面部识别

没有(嗯,一张脸)

An Ali Pay/WeChat account and an associated bank account

10 - 15s.

(For frequent users, it could be less than 10 seconds)

设备要求

软件要求

时间成本

Apple/Android Pay

一个支持面部识别的手机

Credit/debit card preset in Apple Pay

Within 15s

QR code

A smartphone with a camera

An Ali Pay/WeChat account and an associated bank account

30秒–1分钟

FRP

没有(嗯,一张脸)

An Ali Pay/WeChat account and an associated bank account

10 - 15s.

(For frequent users, it could be less than 10 seconds)

This new method has been adopted in many physical stores in China: clothing stores, grocery stores, vending machines, and checkpoints of subway stations. It seems cool and convenient, because it can reduce checkout time and the hassle of pulling out mobile phones. But, how do users view this new method of payment? How hard is it for new users to learn how the technology works? And do people reallywant用他们的脸部支付?我们进行了一项研究来找出。

方法

在北京,我们进行了一项涉及访谈和观察会议的研究。该研究有5岁至42岁的参与者;三是女性,两个是男性。两位参与者以前使用了面部识别支付技术,但三个是第一次使用。

我们在会议前5-10分钟采访了每个参与者。我们向在线和离线购物和FRP体验(如果有的话)提出有关付款习惯的问题。我们还要求他们画画和描述他们的mental modelsof the FRP technology and how it might work.

采访结束后,他们被邀请在支持这项新技术的两家面包连锁店中的一家尝试FRP(在本研究中与alipay相关)。在整个购物过程中,特别是在付款时,参与者被鼓励大声思考。观察结束后,我们又进行了10-15分钟的访谈。参与者讲述了他们的经历,讨论了这种新支付方式的利弊,并根据需要修改了他们的心理模型。

Convenience Is Not Enough

All participants, but especially new users, praised the convenience of FRP. Even for first-time users, the method reduced the total payment time to around 15–20 seconds. One 35-year-old male, new to this process, couldn’t believe it happened so fast. When he finished the payment, he asked the cashier twice “So is it done?” After being repeatedly reassured that he had paid for his croissant, he left.

这below figure shows the process that a first-time user needs to go through in order to use the FRP technology. After the cashier enters the amount the customer needs to pay, the customer is prompted to stand before the specialized device. When thePay with Face Recognitionbutton on the screen is tapped, the customer’s face is captured and used to retrieve the associated Ali Pay account. Then, the user must enter the phone number listed in the Ali Pay account to validate identity. Once the identity is confirmed, the user tapsConfirm Payment

It takes four steps for users to finish the payment with FRP: Start page, Face capture, Validation and confirmation, and Finish payment.
这user flows for first-time users and returning users of the FRP technology.
It takes four steps for users to finish the payment with FRP: Start page, Face capture, Validation and confirmation, and Finish payment.
这user flows for first-time users and returning users of the FRP technology.

Sounds convenient, right? But actually,4名参与者中的4个我们采访的仍然优选的QR代码扫描,即使在他们经历了这种新的、快速的支付方式之后。为什么?除此之外用户经常讨厌变化,最大的问题是在boarding experience(or lack thereof) didn’t make them feel secure enough.

Poor Onboarding = No Trust

任何与财务有关的事情通常都被认为是私人的,需要高度的安全性:人们不想拿自己的钱冒险。虽然面部识别支付速度很快,但第一次使用的用户的入职体验很差,因此,他们产生了怀疑,不信任这项技术,并表示不想再使用这项技术。基本上,我们目睹了晕轮效应-他们的第一次互动令人不安,因此他们对整个技术持负面看法。

Mistake #1: Ali Pay Didn’t Ask First-Time Users for Consent

在点击这一点Pay with Facial Recognitionbutton, a face-capture screen popped up immediately. Some participants were confused.

A 33-year-old female said, “It made me feel that the Ali Pay app allowed you to do this [FRP] without any consent. I first should authorize this FRP service.”

错误#1:阿里支付首次使用FRP时没有征得用户同意。

实际上,阿里支付确实在某种程度上要求同意。该公司已更新其用户协议和通知用户的下一次登录的更新用户。

我们的研究中的任何参与者都没有意识到这种通知的存在。这并不奇怪 - 这是一个常见的笑话,没有人读过隐私政策。Adding a clause of legalese to the end of a long, formal document is not an acceptable way to notify users of a significant change.

错误#2:Ali Pay没有解释面临的脸部是如何认可的

在iPhone上设置面部ID时,首次用户将被要求在将头部移动到侧面时录制脸部,以捕获不同的角度。这个简单的onboarding过程对用户来说是有道理的 - 他们知道iPhone可以识别他们的脸,因为他们训练它是这样做的。

这Ali Pay FRP doesn’t have any such “training” step. Instead, it uses the government-ID data that users put in when they registered their Ali Pay account. (This identity information, similar to a driver’s license number, is required for most online-payment services in China. It also includes a photo of the user.)

However, most of our participants had registered their Ali Pay accounts a long time ago and didn’t remember that Ali Pay had their identity and photo. So, they developedfalse mental modelsfor the technology. They believed that, when they used FRP for the first time,it was a registration process, not a recognition process。换句话说,他们认为,当他们的图片被设备拍摄时,软件在那个面部和电话号码索引的帐户之间创建了一个链接。

Mistake #2: Ali Pay didn’t tell users how the app recognized their faces. Participants incorrectly believed that when they used FRP for the first time and had their picture taken, the system learned how they looked like and associated that information with the account matching their phone number, so they were afraid that someone else could have used their phone number to register and steal their money.

这是一个潜在灾难性的误解。这implication这种误解是,如果用户尚未使用过FRP,任何人通过该用户的电话号码可以去购买一些东西并将自己的脸与链接到该电话号码相关联。(再次强调:技术不是这样的actually有效,但参与者就是这样interpretedthe process. Belief overrules facts, to drive opinion.)

这participants asked questions like, “How does it know who I am? What if you used my phone number [to register]?” They were so worried about the account security that researchers had to debrief for a while after the study to explain that their accounts were not at risk. (This step should have been done by Ali Pay!)

Mistake #3: Ali Pay Didn’t Allow Users to Choose the Account Used for Paying

首次用户提供电话号码后,他们被要求Confirm Payment。But Ali Pay users can add multiple cards to one account, so first-time users didn’t know which of their cards will be charged.

一个33岁的参与者在发现这笔钱通过Ant Credit Pay取消了这笔钱,他不喜欢的Ali支付的产品并不想再使用。

He complained, “They forced me to use their product, and now I have to remember to pay them back later on!”

对于第一次和返回用户来说,他们无法从其他信用卡中进行选择。
错误#3:用户无法选择替代卡或银行账户。

很可能是阿里支付的设计师故意不想让人们选择一个账户——毕竟,FRP的全部目的是要有闪电般的快速结帐。更少的选择意味着更快的支付。我们在Square和Clover等美国结账产品中看到了类似的设计选择——一旦用户输入了收据的电子邮件地址,它就与该信用卡相关联,用户无需再次输入。

However, users should be able to choose their own default payment method — at least when they use the technology for the first time. They should not be forced to use Ali Pay’s financial products. Since they can easily choose from a list of payment methods while paying by scanning QR codes, why can’t FRP also allow for it? Alternatively, people should at least be told what the default account is and how they could change it (if at all)before they pay

错误四:阿里支付没有要求确认密码

移动ALI Pay应用程序要求用户输入密码以支付。如果他们想要禁用密码,但默认情况下,他们将不得不输入它(在美国人员中的人们必须在使用Apple Pay之前输入密码或者在您的脸上识别出密码。因此,使用ALI Pay时,用户被调用以输入密码。当Ali Pay FRP没有要求支付密码时,人们会困惑和可疑。

One participant seemed astonished when he used FRP without a password. He said, “I have never disabled that feature [enter passwords to pay], and I enter passwords when I pay for something that is just 5 yuan (around 0.8 dollars). How can they do this?”

没有密码让他紧张。他补充道,“没有密码,没有安全!”

Mistake #4: FRP didn’t ask for users’ consent to pay without entering a password.

It’s likely that facial recognition is so reliable and secure that Ali Pay decided it didn’t need to add an extra layer of protection (and an extra step) with a password. However, whileAli Pay may have faith in the security of the technology and a good understanding of how it works, new users do not。他们需要确信。

Better Onboarding Techniques to Increase Confidence

Ali Pay FRP’s issues largely stem from未能帮助用户理解新技术(at least on a basic level) and adjust to it. This is a growing challenge for UX. We’re beginning to design interfaces and experiences around advanced new technologies (facial recognition, AI systems, VR, AR, autonomous vehicles, etc.). As we’ve seen in this example (and in many others, in domains such ascloud computing,智能助理,和machine learning),太简单了create false mental models and distrust

避免这些问题的关键是一点额外的掌控 -以简单的方式仔细介绍这项技术,这样用户就可以理解它并感觉到它在控制中。而入职流程可能not be necessary for simple mobile app interactions, they’re needed for new technologies.

Designers in the early days of software faced a similar problem. Most people had no prior exposure to digital interfaces, so designers had to figure out how to make them approachable. One solution to this challenge was to use直接操纵而且很重skeuomorphic接口(例如,文件文件夹上类似于物理选项卡的UI选项卡),以帮助用户粗略地了解如何运作的事情。随着时间的推移,由于人口的更大比例获得了经验和信心,可以调整那些手持式设计,因为用户了解产品的工作原理。

Let’s explore how this particular cutting-edge technology, Ali Pay FRP, could be made more approachable.

解决# 1:要求同意

如果你想拍照的人你永远不会met before, it’s polite to ask for permission first. It’s creepy if you don’t. The same is true for a digital product.

微信的FRP在征求首次用户同意方面做得更好。当一个初次使用微信FRP的用户在一家超市结账时,一个弹出窗口在开始支付流程之前请求批准。如果用户愿意,可以浏览详细的协议。

WeChat Pay’s FRP asked users to authorize this new service when they used it for the first time. The popup window read,Enable facial recognition payment of WeChat. Face is your unique feature. This payment method is safe and convenient.A link to the full version of the agreement was also provided.

While the additional step of consent may not be legally necessary and might slow down the first checkout by a few seconds, it would’ve been worth slowing down to increase users’sense of control

Fix #2: Present Enough Information to Prevent Misunderstanding and Increase Confidence

When introducing a new technology, we must provide users with adequate information. That can be tricky — we have to give enough information to make them feel comfortable, but not so much information that you need a degree in computer science to understand it.

在这种情况下,它将足够简单地告诉别人Ali支付如何承认他们的面孔。设计人员无需进入面部识别过程的工作原理的所有细节,但至少应清楚地说明Ali Pay使用客户的ID照片。

Fix 2 - Add A Step Fix 2 - Step 2
Adding a step to tell users how the app got their facial information can help build correct mental models.

Some users also raised privacy and security concerns. For example, two users wondered, “Where would it store my facial information? Who would have access to that? How long would my face be stored in this machine [for confirmation]?” They had no idea where to find the answer, either.

在首次使用期间,这些问题可能不会一次在一次性地回答,当地收银员可能无法提供帮助。但这些深入的问题可以解决other channels

一个用户试图在使用过服务后检查她的手机。她说:

“I am thinking it’s my first time using it [FRP]. There should be a notification [from the Ali Pay app] telling me that I used that for the first time, asking me to validate the information, or letting me learn more about it.”

To help users understanding how the FRP technology works, Ali Pay could send push notifications to users who just used it for the first time. Users could learn details about how it works if they’d like to.

这JD unmanned store in Beijing used a different approach to help users register their face for FRP. Outside the door of the store, users were prompted to scan a QR-code and use a微信迷你计划要记录他们的脸并选择付款方式。

People could, thus, take the time to learn what data the product was gathering and how. This is an elegant way of providing details without slowing the actual checkout process down. Users could also manage the FRP settings on the phone: they were allowed to choose from more payment options.

在JD无人店的FRP邀请用户在智能手机上通过注册过程。他们了解到,这项付款方式会记录他们的面孔,可以选择他们的首选付款方式。

Fix #3: Allow Customization and Compromise When Challenging Existing Mental Models

对于任何新技术,如果它挑战或违反用户现有的心理模型,最好允许一起初定制或妥协,以逐渐习惯患者。

在阿里支付玻璃钢,一些用户心理model “no passwords = no security.” Thus, allowing passwords as an extra layer of protection could be a compromise. Again, Ali Pay’s designers might know that isn’t necessary from a security perspective, but if it makes people more comfortable as they warm up to the new tech, what’s the harm?

一位用户建议,“这种支付方式应该有一个金额限制,比如我可以设置一个门槛。”她补充说,如果她能用脸和密码的组合支付一大笔钱,她会觉得更安全。

Actually, Ali Pay and WeChat Pay both used such a strategy when they were promoting QR-code payment and users thought it was not secure enough. While users could choose to enter the password every time when pay by QR code, they could also enable a feature called少量无密码。当订单金额低于用户设置的阈值时,此服务允许用户在没有密码的情况下付款(范围在200到5000元之间)。随着对QR代码扫描变得更加舒适,更多用户启用此功能,以提高效率。

修复#4:一种信息丰富的布局

FRP的付款确认页面对于初次用户和经常用户都不清楚。

For first-time users, the payment completion and the phone-number validation were done in the same step, with no payment-confirmation page at all.

For frequent users, though the device displayed their name, face, and account information, the key information — how much they were paying — was missing. So, both user groups in our study didn’t realize that tappingConfirm Paymentwas the final step of the process.

确认页应以明确的方式提供足够的信息。作为流程的关键页面,它应该总结付款信息,包括用户的面部和帐户信息,订单数量和付款方式。更好的设计如下所示(右侧)。

修复4.
FRP的当前版本(左)和更好的确认页面设计(右):添加支付金额和支付方式(或账户)可以让用户保持知情和自信。

If there are similar or identical components of user flow for both new and current products,将它们对齐以创建内部一致性。这种方法可以帮助用户感受控制互动。

例如,AliPay上典型的支付确认页面包含三个组件:金额、备忘录和支付方式。如果FRP确认页面也有这些组件和类似的视觉设计,人们将更有可能将此页面视为流程的最后一步。

ALI Pay Mobile App:在线转帐的确认页包括付款金额,项目(备忘录)和付款方式。用户熟悉布局并假设任何付款的最后一步都应该涉及这些组件。

使用面部识别加速互动 - 好还是坏?

如今,许多产品具有先进的技术旨在提供方便的服务,加快互动并提高效率。在这种情况下,ALI支付使用过的面部识别设备以加快店内付款。

However, users don’t necessarily appreciate this convenience, especially since it comes at the expense of those qualities of the interaction process that they believe to be critical. In our study, users’ security and privacy concerns outweighed FRP’s increased checkout efficiency. Since QR-code payment is widely used and perceived as fast, some people didn’t see why saving 15 extra seconds was worth feeling insecure about your money.

为首次用户提供信息,但不是压倒性的船上体验,可以减少担忧和防止虚假的心理模型。Less is more” isn’t always applicable:你不应该为了方便而牺牲入职Once the majority of your population is familiar with the process, then you can think about streamlining it.

更长但更有信息丰富的首次用户体验可以提高用户的信心,并邀请他们再次尝试新产品。然后那是时候炫耀你的产品的优势 - 在这种情况下,结账效率提高。