敏捷开发过程在程序员中受欢迎,我们研究了几年best integrate Agile methods and user experience methods创建伟大的产品,在快速编程后追逐时不要放弃可用性。我们早期的研究被认为是广泛的观点,因此我们现在潜入较少数量的项目,以收集我们的更深层次的见解new course on Lean UX and Agile

I recently interviewed eight professionals who work in Agile environments to learn about their journey, their successes and failures. I spoke with people ranging from User Experience (UX) designers to developers and product owners. All worked in an Agile environment for at least two years.

敏捷在这里留下来

没有回头。我谈到的每个人都承认这个过程并不总是顺利,但是today it is much better than when they first startedseveral years ago. Even at the 2-year mark, some people confessed that it’s not all roses, but it’s much better than it was before —没有人想恢复传统的发展process such as the waterfall.

一般来说,敏捷团队同意这一框架促进了这一框架透明度。Issues are identified sooner and features are delivered faster. Gone are the days when developers and designers spent months and months cranking away, working independently, and only identified issues at the end. Agile has minimized last-minute surprises and allowed developers to predict timelines more efficiently.

“我们聪明地努力。整个月内没有14小时。我们是一支球队,我们经常发布......由于我们使用没有单片的较小的块,预测比巨大的东西更容易,并且可能需要9个月。每个人都意识到进展。“Victor,软件工程师

“Before Agile it was harder to stay on track. There is more accountability now. Things are more transparent.”ANCA,软件工程师

实践是完美的

经过几年的审判和错误,敏捷团队正在掌握它。人们更好tateboxing.或设定活动的时间限制。每日常用会议的会议曾经上去30分钟或更长时间现在越来越接近15分钟。团队成员更好地简洁并坚持议程。对“规则”以及流程如何益处发布,更加了解和欣赏。

Time estimates are more accurate. In the early days, some teams took on more than they could handle insprints(或时间单位),但今天这不太问题,因为他们已经了解了给定冲刺的合理工作是什么。

“尴尬正在磨损。人们必须习惯于呼唤事物和新活动的有趣方式。“Michelle,UI设计师

沟通是关键

For some team members, the biggest benefit to using Agile is communication. The Scrum method provides the structure for cross-functional team members to contribute ideas, share responsibilities, and refine the process together.

“The biggest advantage to Agile is retrospectives. It allows people to air dirty laundry, improve, and try different things … At first I was very focused on following the rules. After working in different Scrum teams, I’ve learned that I have to work for those teams … Now we have a shared vocabulary, a shared understanding.”Jeff, Product Manager

“The value of scrum is conversation. Don’t beat yourself up over following all the rules. We do as much as we can.”Cathy, Product Owner

Agile Challenges Within Organizations

For many people the Agile road is still bumpy. Gaining company-wide support has been an uphill battle. Teams must work hard to show nonbelievers the value of Agile and encourage them to break out of their comfort zones.

Lack of Executive Support

敏捷的主要挑战之一是从顶部获得支持。我谈到的一些人表达了他们对管理层缺乏参与的挫败感。如果没有行政支持,团队被迫削减角落并减少工作。关于敏捷过程的误解导致通信故障和非连贯规划。

“Requests from stakeholders that are outside of Agile mess with sprint planning.”朱莉娅,UX设计师

“我们必须努力解决不属于规划的东西。”Cathy, Product Owner

“Our group is embracing Agile, but our organization is not there yet. We’ve had a couple of Agile coaches, but the coaches were not great at swaying senior management. They didn’t have an impact to get senior management onboard.”曼迪,高级程序员分析师

Inadequate Resources

The lack of executive support usually results in diminished resources. The practitioners I talked to agree on the merit of Agile and Lean methodologies such as Scrum. Each Scrum component is structured to address a process need. Some of the most successful projects occur when teams can commit to the methodology. However, almost everyone I interviewed didn’t follow the recipe or was forced to take shortcuts. The main reason: lack of resources.

没有用户的研究和可用性测试

Our Agile panelists agree on the importance of validating designs. Unfortunately, most teams don’t conduct user research on a consistent basis, if at all. People cite tight deadlines and staffing shortages as reasons for deficiencies inuser-centered activities。然而,discount usability methodscan accommodate short timelines as needed.

跳过用户研究非常有风险。即使是最好的设计思想也是假设。一个有限的限制genius designer。用户研究允许我们测试我们的假设,并防止认知偏见接管并引领美国误入歧途。

“We work under internally imposed deadlines and sometimes need to push things out without testing, which is suboptimal for users.”朱莉娅,UX设计师

“这真的很难做出可用性测试。我们是短职人员,没有小学研究员。我们已经借入了营销的人,但他不知道产品足够或遵守我们的“我们爱我们的用户”的哲学。“朱莉娅,UX设计师

“We don’t have time to run user testing.”Victor,软件工程师

The good news is Lean UX techniques such as sketching, wireframing, andpaper prototyping获得了支持。鼓励设计师创造低保真原型,作为展示思想和减少重物的一种方式。缺点是许多组织没有使用目标用户测试它们。

“我们试图有点倾向。我的老板鼓励我们不要使用线框 - 与草图一起去。这是一个艰难的过渡。人们开玩笑我是一个线框的瘾君子。草图帮助我了解我们都在思考的想法。“朱莉娅,UX设计师

“我们一直在做快速和肮脏的纸张和绘制模型,并与发展进行合作。”曼迪,高级程序员分析师

运行光滑的UX敏捷团队的提示

保持团队一致

It takes time to build a good, cohesive team with the domain knowledge to make the right decisions quickly. Each Agile team may work differently and have a unique team dynamic. Disrupting the system wildly interrupts velocity because knowledge and expectations must be reestablished.

“Team consistency is key. Stop reorganizing and shuffling people around. Teams that stay together, learn together, and keep getting better and faster.”Derek, Lead Researcher & UX Designer

“It’s a challenge for me because resources are not dedicated. One week we have this person; next week we have another person. We got an Agile coach onsite but if everyone doesn’t get the training or stick to a project long enough, then you have to start over again when you get a new person … Don’t move people back and forth between Agile and waterfall.”Michelle,UI设计师

Be Proactive Not Reactive

If you are used to working低头for long stretches of time, then you need to change your work style or risk being outdated. Collaboration is key in successful product development. The involvement of cross-functional team members facilitates transparency and allows issues to be identified early. Be involved in all aspects of the design process, including planning. Be prepared to share your ideas, show what you are working on, and contribute to discussions.

“Everyone needs to be proactive in improving communication. Be invested in your team and what you are creating. Be an owner not a renter.”朱莉娅,UX设计师

“Developers need to ask, not just take orders. Everyone needs to be interested in working as a team.”朱莉娅,UX设计师

有一个专门的scrum master,特别是在开始时

如果您正在考虑进行敏捷或刚刚开始,请确保为Scrum Master分配预算。这个人将确保该过程顺利进行。如果没有经验丰富的协调员,有一个很好的机会,事情会出错,让人们感到对这个过程感到不安。

“Make sure you have a dedicated Scrum master. If you can’t do that, be clear about roles.”曼迪,高级程序员分析师

“Scrum Master是一只绵羊狗,推土机和教练。他们确保问题得到解决,团队有动力。没有Scrum Master的危险是每个人都认为这个过程被混乱了。“Jeff, Product Owner

UX Must Work at Least One Step Ahead of the Sprint

Agile is development friendly, but that’s no excuse for reducing UX’s influence. Effective UX professionals incorporate themselves in the Agile process by actively contributing ideas — from backlog grooming and print planning to wireframing and user research. UX designers mustplan activities before the sprint occurs, which means being proactive and testing assumptions and tackling designs ahead of the rest of the team. They conduct show-and-tell activities ahead of sprints to introduce concepts to users and team members so that, when development is ready to begin, the team has the designs that they need.

“用户体验设计师必须至少领先一步f the sprint. In other words, do research and design work outside of the current sprint. I have to keep laying the tracks for the team.”Derek, Lead Researcher & UX Designer

“The UX person should go ahead of the sprint with mockups.”Michelle,UI设计师

“Design a little ahead of development. Development is more comfortable with that. They don’t want ambiguous concepts.”Jeff, Product Owner

结论

Agile will continue to gain momentum as organizations discover the benefits. UX professionals must adapt to Agile and lean UX processes, which value transparency, collaboration, and responsiveness or risk being left behind.

The Agile user-experience process is more than just being a thoughtful designer; you must first know the user and continually test your assumptions. Don’t allow user research to run away from you during the compressed timeline of the Agile process. Get out of the office and learn from your users. It is possible to incorporate lean UX techniques into an Agile development process. Methods like在线用户测试can get you user feedback in minutes.

想要了解有关在固定时间轴中创建大用户体验的更多信息吗?Join us at the Nielsen Norman Group’s full-day精益UX和敏捷课程for more in-depth recommendations.