两年前,我们开始了一个长期的研究项目更好地了解design thinking: how从业人员将其纳入日常工作及其对项目结果的影响。

In setting out to define a design-thinking maturity model, we realized that the maturity of the individual team members and their experience, exposure, and mastery of design thinking were essential to the overall team’s (or organization’s) ability to effectively utilize design-thinking methodologies. To better understand this relationship between individual abilities and team performance, we identifiedcatalysts- 单方面从业者的设计思维掌握在其团队或组织中积极影响设计思维实践。根据我们的对话与这些催化剂有关他们的经验(以及他们教导和指导的人的经验),我们假设设计思维从业者分享大致相同的学习之旅,尽管不同的背景和背景。

为了澄清这个学习之旅的阶段,我们进行了一个large-scale survey涉及1067名从业者,旨在调查受访者的设计思维经验。根据自我报告的设计思维曝光,经验,主要活动以及最大的挑战,我们将反应分类为潜在的学习阶段。这个过程,每年与数百名设计思维从业者交谈UX Conference,帮助我们建立一套统一的阶段t most practitioners encounter while learning design thinking:新来的人,采用者,领导, and棋圣



  • 大多数学习旅程都在某些时候感到沮丧。在设计思维的学习之旅中,您正在努力为您努力提供鼓励,在“这一点”时刻。如果您正在学习自己的设计思考,那么对旅程的认识可以帮助您唯一一个人。
  • Identifying your current phase can help you predict future progress. Stay focused on the goals of your current learning phase rather than jumping ahead. Jumping ahead runs the risk of creating experiences that leave you feeling doubtful or confused, and thus less motivated to continue to learn.

As an educator (or manager or mentor), you empathize, create an effective design-thinking learning experience for others, and enable sustainable, long-term success.

  • Understanding where others are and that different people will be at different stages in the learning process is a key part in being an effective educator. It allows you to deliver effective learning experiences without overwhelming your audience with too much complexity and also preemptively mitigate learners’ pain points at each phase.
  • 教育和激活一群人需要大量资源(时间,金钱和努力)。该教育过程应故意设计,以最大限度地提高资源和投资回报。通过学习旅程绘制参与者的阶段和他们的进展,允许教育者对培训的成功进行基准进度。
Design Thinking 4 Stages of Learning: Newcomer, Adopter, Leader, and Grandmaster.
该re are 4 phases in the design - 思考学习者的旅程:新来的人,采用者,领导and棋圣 个人通过这一阶段进入,作为他们的设计思维和暴露的经验。该adapterphase is most turbulent as practitioners first experiment with applying design thinking to their work. In that phase, mastery (defined as the combination between competence, how good one is, and confidence, how good one thinks one is) fluctuates the most.

As practitioners progress through the stages, their mastery increases in a nonlinear fashion—experiencing fluctuations due especially to lack of self-confidence. Note that mastery is a combination of competence and confidence; both are required to effectively use design thinking. If you are good but feel insecure, you won’t deviate from the strict steps of design thinking and won’t teach others. The goal is to create alignment between competence and confidence in order to master design thinking.


Rather than thinking of each phase as a discrete checklist, we’ve created a three-component framework for characterizing each learning stage: criteria, primary activities, and educator goals.

  1. 标准are observable qualities that can help the learner (or an external observer, such as an educator) identify the learner’s current stage in the learning journey. They include awareness of one’s own competence, level of exposure, and confidence.
  2. Primary activities学习者的行为和使用设计思维方法。
  3. 教育工作者目标和障碍总结学习者在任何特定阶段的痛点和相应的教育者目标,可以帮助学习者克服它们。


This phase is the first in the learning journey. For the majority of practitioners, this exposure occurs via a university or institution, a place of work, or an online resource. The amount of time spent at this first stage depends on how motivated the learner is. Many practitioners immediately perceive design thinking as useless and never leave this stage.


Individuals in this stage have been introduced to design thinking, but have limited experience with it. Practitioners in this phase fall into 2 buckets:

  1. 致力于学习设计思维的个人
  2. 没有兴趣了解更多关于设计思维的人。他们已经暴露在设计思维中,但这就是他们学习旅程停止的地方。这些从业者可以无限期地留在这个阶段,直到他们遇到更深层次的设计思维,以扩大他们的观点,经验或接受。

Newcomers’知识很小;它们具有对设计思维的表面级别了解,通常植根于他们在第一次曝光期间收到的定义。他们可能能够提供一个定义,但不熟悉框架或其价值的细节。他们有与设计思维 - 粘性笔记,无限循环,白板有关的题单关联。NewcomerS不知道他们的设计思维无能 - 他们尚不知道他们不知道。

Primary Activities

Newcomers’ primary goal is to understand the basics — what design thinking is and why it’s useful. Often, this stage’s activities are self-initiated: browsing articles, reading books, or signing up for a seminar. In other cases, design thinking is learned by necessity or requirement at work or school through onboarding programs, collaborative workshops, required courses, or mandated trainings. Most新来的人s have not yet actively practiced design-thinking activities, or if they have their participation is shallow and topical.




在这个阶段的个人采用了设计思维,并开始练习它。他们可能在他们有限的设计思维经验中有一些起伏。这是常见的采用者华夫格之间的过度自信和自我怀疑and to feel both confused and successful at the same time. Successful采用者s see design thinking relevant to their work or life and, thus, make a commitment to continue learning.


Increased (passive or active) exposure and familiarity with design thinking has made采用者知道他们的知识限制。他们了解设计思维的潜力,但仍然有很多学习。Adopters have invested time, effort, and energy into design thinking and have started applying design thinking to their work with mixed success. Their commitment to design thinking can be self-initiated or dictated to them by an authority with an invested interest (company leadership, university, or boss).

Primary Activities

Adopters practice design thinking in a linear way — by the book. They rely heavily on checklists — for the6设计思维步骤以及与每个步骤相关的活动。许多采用者倾向于规定的品牌版本的设计思维,通常由他们的机构,公司或信誉良好的外部组织提供。

这是常见的从业人员to encounter failure in this phase —especially if they are learning predominately on their own—because of their incomplete understanding of the design-thinking framework. Common types of failure include jumping to conclusions, using the wrong activity at the wrong time, and lack of buy-in or support from others. These failures push some practitioners to abandon design thinking altogether. However, most learning in this phase occurs through failure. Practitioners who embrace failure tend to develop a malleable understanding of design thinking in future phases. (It’s a cliché, but it’s a cliché because it’s right: failure is a learning opportunity.)



Adopters are on the bike, but still need training wheels and coaching.AdopterS'的信心下降,因为它们实现了应用设计思维的间接方式以及他们必须学习多少 - 例如,他们最初认为这个过程的直接程度与它是多么摘要(和潜在的压倒性)。该goal of the educator at this stage is to help learners through hands-on practice and assistance until they can comfortably use design thinking on their own. Individuals are most commonly lost in this phase when they cannot make a direct connection to the relevance of design thinking. Thus, it is imperative that采用者S查找日常工作的相关性和应用。


这是设计思维的能力阶段。Leaders can articulate design thinking succinctly to others and their confidence grows steadily, with varied (generally positive) experiences and continued exposure.Leaders在他们的学习旅程中积极,独立的角色,开始适应设计思维;他们开始探索新的应用程序,甚至可以以其圈子的设计思考而闻名。



Primary Activities

Practitioners in this phase lead design-thinking activities with others or perform design thinking without coaching, but still with some preparation and focus. While they were previously participants, they now facilitate, initiate, and even advocate for collaborative design-thinking activities. For example, they might initiate an empathy buildingworkshop,将其他人拉入用户研究,或映射auser journey揭开真理的痛点或时刻。领导者参与逐渐增加复杂性的活动,包括涉及讲习班的用户来促进利益相关者进入流程和多媒体原型设计(例如,bodystorming, future-stateblueprinting, andstoryboards) .


该goal of the teacher in this phase is to continue to instill confidence and help sustain the learner’s commitment. The goal should be to empower领导sto transition into the role of design-thinking teachers and facilitators. As much as they’ve progressed, they still may not be aware of weaknesses or potential improvements (even though they often recognize a mistake after they made it). Promoting reflection in this phase is the key to helping领导s continue to grow (and progress to棋圣s)。他们必须在调整设计思维行为方面采取积极的作用,以满足其上下围目标和需求,可持续发展,并最大限度地提高潜在的福利。



Practitioners at this stage have not only become teachers of design thinking, but create new ways of applying it, thinking about it, and adding to it. The practice of design thinking is so embodied in their behavior that they seldom have to think about applying it.爷爷view design thinking as a flexible, dynamic toolkit. They’ve long departed from the concept of a prescribed process and rather view it as scaffolding to solve both organizational (often internal) and end-user (external, product-related) problems. However, this phase doesn’t come without downsides.爷爷更有可能怀疑设计思维而不是领导s,通常,当早期学习者将受害者降低到管理的设计思维营销,因此误解,误用,削弱了整个练习。


Grandmasters’ defining characteristic is the ability to critically reflect on their design-thinking practice. This reflection enables them to judge what is useful and potentially depart from the traditional ways and activities of design thinking.Grandmaster也知道如何帮助别人对同一阶段的启蒙阶段。爷爷是意识到自己的能力。他们有an in-depth, intuitive understanding and can blend design-thinking skills together to meet their specific need.

Primary Activities

传统的设计思维活动仍然使用棋圣s, but are altered, adapted, and applied in complex ways, depending on the goal, audience, and potential obstacles.Grandmasters don’t stick to prescribed or branded versions of design thinking and more often pull tools and/or activities from other realms, like service design and business strategy. For example,棋圣S更有可能使用如诸如此类的活动service blueprinting和商业模式帆布。虽然在此阶段仍进行基本的设计思维活动,但它们与早期阶段中的那些不同,因为它们是更复杂,涉及的活动的投入或对准策略(与基本活动是最终目标的前一级相比)。

Educator’s Goals and Obstacle

爷爷have very likely surpassed their original teachers. Their goal becomes not just activating and educating individual learners, but rather organizations as a whole. As practitioners themselves,棋圣sface an increasing likelihood of (re)questioning the value of design thinking. Increased knowledge and mastery are a blessing and curse; this pessimistic view is often rooted in the realization of what design thinking can and cannot solve (contrary to earlier naive ideas that design thinking can be a cure-all). However, even棋圣scan get better, by self-reflection, by learning from their peers, and also by learning from their juniors: one of the skills of supreme mastery is the ability to discern which of the hundreds of ideas generated by eager newcomers is actually a stroke of genius.

Additional Notes and Considerations

  • Trained designers experience the design-thinking learning journey too, just differently.许多设计师认为设计思维只是一种表达和传达“设计”解决问题解决方法的方法。因此,许多设计师可能会觉得他们完全绕过了这个学习之旅,因为这就是他们本能地思考的方式。然而,设计师也体验了这一学习之旅,尽管在他们的教育或职业中早些时候,并且可能没有被包装或品牌作为设计思考。这并不意味着所有棋圣sare designers, but rather that many successful designers likely are.
  • 一个人可以同时处于多个层面。一些skills may fall into one phase, while others into a lower different phase. For example, a practitioner’s mindset and reflection may fall intoGrandmaster,虽然他们的实践经验和接触活动Leader。目标是确定这种不平衡,并投资于鞋垫较弱的经验。



Regardless, it is imperative we frame and articulate learning design thinking as an experiential journey. Doing so can help us become more effective learners and educators. Learners can gain insight and awareness into the greater journey and goals, while educators can thoughtfully and successfully execute the design-thinking learning experience they aim to create.